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Saturday

Radioactive Pollution

According to the physics Radiation the emission of energy as electromagnetic waves or as moving subatomic particles, especially high-energy particles which cause ionization. The radiation is not very much fruitful for animals and humans, however modern technology used it in several medical applications. Yes, It is harmful but in higher amount or frequency below a limit it is useful. Here I must say about the electromagnetic waves coming from sun which is reflected back in the universe by earth's magnetic field.

Radiation as a Pollution 

It is highly dangerous when it occurs. It can occur due to nuclear plant malfunctions, improper nuclear waste disposal, accidents, etc. It can cause cancer, infertility, blindness, defects at the time of birth; can sterile soil and affect air and water. Radioactivity is radioactive decay or emission of particles (neuron, proton or heavier particles) from an atom or nucleus. Recently radioactive elements are also used in research and medicine. These pollutants are directly linked to nuclear energy. It contamination also call radiological contamination, is the deposition off or presence of radioactive substances on surfaces or within solids, liquids or gases. The most dangerous long-lived radio nuclides are those emitted by nuclear reactors. It’s most popular use in the past has been in wars where it destroyed entire cities in one go; however, today it is widely used as an energy source to fuel electricity. It may be due to electromagnetic radiation, nuclear radiation, or cosmic radiation.
Electromagnetic radiation occurs through X-rays, gamma rays, UV rays visible light, infrared rays and radio waves.
Nuclear radiation pollution occurs when radioactive atoms like uranium, thorium etc. release radiation in the form of alpha and beta particles. Nuclear radiation also occurs when radioactive elements are produced artificially in nuclear reactors and particle accelerators.
Cosmic radiation takes place due to high energy particles invading the earth and its atmosphere from outer space and the sun. Cosmic rays consist of electrons, protons, helium nuclei, hydrogen nuclei, and the nuclei belonging to heavier elements like carbon and oxygen.

      Sources

  • Nuclear power plant accidents or leakage
  • Improper nuclear waste disposal
  • Uranium mining operations

     Effect


  • Cancer
  • Sterilization
  • Birth defect
  • Mutations which have greater impact on our physique 

     Remedies


  • The protective garments must be worn
  • The natural radiation must be at the permissible limits

Monday

Thermal Pollution

Basically heat is not a contamination you guys are thinking what I am saying Heat as pollution,  well heat is required for everyone living on Earth  because  it is the only mode of transfer of energy, but what if this is increased and make changes to our abiotic components (e.g: Water). 
This over heating is not only caused by Sun, The human activities are involved in the Thermal pollution mostly. 
Interaction of Species with each other

Heat As Pollution    

Thermal pollution is the degradation of water quality by any process that changes ambient water temperature. Thermal pollution is usually associated with increases of water temperature in a stream, lake or ocean due to the discharge of heated water from industrial processes, such as the generation of electricity. Increase in ambient water temperature also occur in streams where shading vegetation along the banks is removed or where sediments have made the water more turbid. It is due to excess heat in the environment creating unwanted changes over long time periods; due to huge number of industrial plants, deforestation and air pollution. It increases the earth’s, temperature, causing drastic climatic changes and extinction of wildlife.
There are four major causes of thermal pollution: The use of water as a cooling agent, deforestation of shorelines, soil erosion and burning of fossil fuels. The foremost cause being the use of water as cooling agent in nuclear power plants and other industrial facilities. In an aquatic system temperature is an important factor which affects physio-chemical parameters of water quality as well as plant, animal and microbial life considerably. Aquatic life is usually well adjusted to seasonal changes inn temperatures which occur naturally. However, man-made changes in temperature of water often cause adverse changes which damage its utility and productivity.

      Sources

  • Urban sprawl
  • Power plants
  • Air pollution particulates that trap heat
  • Deforestation

      Effect
  • Decrease in dissolved oxygen levels
  • Increase in toxins
  • Loss of biodiversity
  • Ecological impact
  • Affects reproductive systems
  • Increases metabolic rate
  • Migration

       Remedies
  • Plants as many trees as possible
  • Cool the water before they put it back in the ocean
  • Burn less coal, oil or gas
  • Reduce mechanical friction

Effects on Living ones

The aquatic ecosystem is commonly disturbed due to the thermal pollution because when the hot water enters the aquatic ecosystem the oxygen dissolving capacity is reduced and the pH of that system also disturbed. These abiotic conditions are most prominently required to run an ecosystem. 
If this Heated water is transferred on soil the eco-friendly microbes die due to change in environment and soil becomes less fertile.
So comment what type of water in your area!! 

Friday

Light Pollution


Sun light is the major source of light on earth, although sunlight also not good for us if it comes to us without passing by ozone. What I am saying is that the sun light contains UV, Infrared and other Magnetic Rays which are harmful to us they are filtered by Ozone layer and our environment to protect us.  But are you sure we are not contaminating our visible light inside our environment,  yes we are! 
The amount and type of light coming  to earth and most of them are deflected back by earth's atmosphere
Here I am not talking about the harmful light coming from sun, I am discussing about the light which is present on earth and how we are making it uncomfortable for living organisms. 

Pollution of Light 

It occurs due to prominent excess illumination of an area. It is largely visible in big cities, on bill boards, in sports or entertainment events at the night. In residential areas the lives of the inhabitants are greatly affected by this. It also affects the astronomical observations and activities by making the stars almost invisible. Bright lightning in the function, big cities, etc. causes light pollution. Light pollution is also known as photo-pollution, it is the presence of anthropogenic light in the night environment. Light pollution occurs at night and is obtrusive, inappropriate or excessive artificial light. Component of light pollution are: Urban sky glow which is the brightening of the night sky over inhabited areas; Light trespass, when light falls where it is not intended or not to fall, visual discomfort caused by excessive brightness and high levels can decrease visibility; light sources which are bright and excessive. These light sources can be found in  urban areas.
It is the brightening of the night sky and it diminishes the view of stars and planets.

      Sources

  • Large cities
  • Billboards and advertising
  • Night time sporting events and other night time entertainment

     Effects

  • Degrade the quality of life
  • Discomfort in the eyes

    Remedies

  • Work with your neighbours and local government to keep the light on the ground and the skies natural
  • Use light emitting diodes (LED)
  • Use only the light you need to get the job done

Health Effects of Unwanted light 💡 

Generally the visible light do not have an enormous effects on human health, but when its intensity increases it corrodes the retina of the eye.  Some people feel eye dryness due to using modern smart phones as their eyes are more exposed to the high intensity light over long time. Unfortunately there is no permanent cure for dry eyes.  
The other lights like UV, Infrared, Gama etc.  have negative impact on body and can be seen easily. 
Comment what are you thinking about it.. ..! 

Saturday

Virus v/s Bacteria | who is more powerful !


Virus and Bacteria both are the biotic components of our ecosystem and they are biologically very important as like any other component in our environment
Before starting the answer One fact I must clear that Bacteria's are most abundant than viruses. Not all bacteria are dangerous for us but all viruses are dangerous for us.

As far as we all know that bacteria have a complete cell and perform all it's metabolic activities and do much more by itself but viruses can't do itself. Viruses need a host to complete their life cycle. 
Viruses are much more chronic to us because they have only a set of DNA/RNA as their genetic material which they insert in host's genome to complete their life cycle. Once the viral genome inserted in host's genome then it becomes difficult to eradicate the effects of virus and it's gene, but thanks to modern genetic engineering we can control, knock out,  and decrease the effects of particular genes at some extent. 
When we talk about bacteria's they are most harmfull but depends on their population and antigenic secretions. When they present in small amount their antigens are also in less and are controlled by antibiotics but in larger amount they are hard to control. 
Bacterial infection is also chronic, some bacteria's have impact on our primary immune defences some have impact on our nerve system. When its impact is more on our body we are unable to respond against it and it becomes dangerous for us.  Certain studies found that bacteria become antibiotic resistance if exposed over long time e.g: Salmonellae,  Helicobector pylori, Enterobacteriacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus etc.
While in case of viruses they gain control on our genes and every time translation occurs it affects. Newly discovered Retro viruses are very dangerous and almost impossible to cure because they do reverse transcription to form their DNA inside the host and after that weakens the host immune system, due to which other diseases arise and person dies. In the case of HIV
We can see in our history viruses have larger effects on eradicating a huge population e.g: Plague,  Enterovirus, Rabbies,  Ebola etc. 

Conclusion 
At last i concluded that viruses are more dangerous than any bacteria if they entered in host's cell and inserted their genomes, here i exclude some viruses that are very much poor in pathogenecity like influenza virus.  But bacteria are too dangerous although we have antibiotics against them but they ate limited due to their adaptation to antibiotic resistance ability.  
For full reference and details visit this page Better Health,Australia

For any query 🔤 feel free to ask us...... ..........we are here to explain..........!! Comment your views Viruses or Bacteria what do you think?

Wednesday

Noise Pollution

  
  The normal range of hearing is 20Hz to 20KHz.  When we talk in decibel unit it is 60db for average speech. The maximum sound of 140db can be hearable by a young man how ever long period of time may harm.  For the children it is 120db beyond that several health effects seen. "Experiments have shown that a healthy young person hears all sound frequencies from approximately 20 to 20,000 hertz." "The maximum range of human hearing includes sound frequencies from about 15 to about 18,000 waves, or cycles, per second." "The general range of hearing for young people is 20 Hz to 20 kHz."


Pollution of Sound                                           

It means unwanted sound that can have deleterious effects on human health and environmental quality. It is commonly generated inside many industrial facilities and some other workplaces, but it also comes from highway, railway, and airplane traffic and from outdoor construction activities. It has become a serious problem for human health. The noisy atmosphere in which we are living is an obstacle in securing good health. Noise pollution and environmental noise are hurting human and other organisms. Noise beyond a limit produces many diseases, such as hypertension, stress, making people vulnerable to forgetfulness, depression and many other serious ailments. Noise is also very dangerous for nature as a whole because it disturbs the tranquillity of all creatures and increases mortality rate in them. Noise pollution is dependent on the loudness and frequency of the sound. In facts, when the sound exceeds its limit, it become fatal for human and other organisms.

The sources of noise pollutions are divided into two categories:

Natural sources

The natural environment is filled with various sounds- thunderstorm, lightning, tornado, cyclone, volcanic eruption, earthquakes, landslides, sounds produced by animals, and rapidly falling water.

Human sources

Rapid industrialization, urbanisation, use of modern means of transport, population growth, and increasing scale of human activities are some of the human factors responsible for noise pollution, Both types of noise pollution, affect sleep, listening ability, physical and mental health.
Low, Soft,  high medium sound waves

Vehicular noise: The modern means of traffic including vehicles such as buses, trucks, scooters, cars etc. pollute the atmosphere. Sound of other automated vehicles and horn, excessive use of loudspeakers for religious purposes also generate jarring noise.
Industrial noise: Industry- businesses, factories and commercial establishments produced a variety of harsh sounds that bump into our ears and disturb our mind. Noise pollution is an integral part of the industrial environment with heavy machines used in the industries; it is on the rise with the increase in industrial urbanisation.
Fireworks: It is another source of pollution. Uncontrolled fireworks in festivals, fairs, or crackers, after victory in matches and elections produce unbearable noise.
Some reasons are also for that inside and outside the house includes car alarms, emergency service siren, machine tools, compressed air horn, equipment, electrical equipment, megaphone etc.

Effect  

  • Physical effects: The physical manifestation of noise pollution is the effect on hearing ability. Repeated exposure to noise may result in temporary or permanent shifting of the hearing threshold of a person depending upon the level and duration of exposure.
  • Physiological effects: Headache bye dilating blood vessels of the brain.
  • Increase in the rate of heart beat.
  • Narrowing of arteries.
  • Pain in the heart.
  • Migration patterns of birds are disturbed, due to which their population is decreasing.

Remedies

  • Automobile servicing 
  • Tree plantation
  • Soundproof homes
  • Factory location

No matter what is it but the noise pollution doesn't have greater impact on ecosystem but it is harmful for humans because humans have limit of hearing 20KHz beyond it harms.
So what is the sound frequency in your near by......... Do you know what to do to prevent yourself from this situation. ... ..................! !!

Saturday

Are DNA/RNA living?


First thing I clear that living organisms are made up of several biochemically active components which together makes it ‘living', but technically we can't say them living individually because together they make a functional biological system which is living.
Here you are considering DNA as a living, its okay but you are referring it also as an organism which is not appropriate or technically correct.
Second thing Nucleus is comprised of DNA and RNA (95% and 5% respectively). So being an nucleus is not likely to be an living organism. If it is then every atom on earth is living organism.

Wednesday

Soil Pollution


There is about 28% land available for farming on earth rest of the 72% is covered with water. In that 28% we have to live, grow plants and trees and the current situation is leading to the pollution in soil which makes it unfertile.  Means to say that the land available for habitat but not for plants.  In this way no farming is possible,  slowly plants disappear from land and the plants present in oceans not sufficient for us. So humans can't survive without plants, and plants without soil.       
Germinating a healthy seed

Pollution in Soil

It occurs due to incorporation of unwanted chemicals in the soil due to human activities. Use of insecticides and pesticides absorbs the nitrogen compounds from the soil making it unfit for plants to drive nutrition from. Soil pollution refers to the mixing of human made chemicals like industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals, and other harmful disposal of wastes from houses, factories, etc. into the natural soil which causes land degradation and makes it unfit for the cropping. Soil is the natural resources on the earth which directly supports the life of plants and indirectly of animals since the origin of life on the earth. It is very important complex substance available everywhere on the earth. Increasing human population and advancement of the human lives is causing soil pollution to a great extent. Main causes of soil pollution are excessive soil erosion, forest fires, use of chemical fertilizers to improve crop production, pesticides (insecticides and herbicides), to get control over insects, urban and industrial wastes, drought untreated industrial water irrigation, deforestation etc. It is increasing day by day at a faster rate in the rural and urban areas of the country due to increasing density of the people.
All the soil contaminants get mixed to the fertile land and causes variety of health disorder directly such as respiratory illness, bronchitis, asthma, cancer, etc. Kids are more prone to the polluted soil than the adults as they into it and gets attacked by many diseases especially respiratory disorders. Increasing human population need more grains thus in order to fulfil this requirement people use highly concentrated fertilizers to improve the crop production which ultimately affects health through the food chain. Soil pollution is the gradual process of soil poisoning of the toxic soil contaminants. Soil pollution has become a major challenge to the whole human fraternity in modern time. Soil is the most important natural resources highly requires to maintain the healthy life here.  

        Sources 


  • Mining and smelting
  • Overcrowded landfills
  • Biological agents like fungi, virus, bacteria and protozoan
  • Urban wastes
  • Overuse of chemical fertilisers 
  • Untreated water when comes under the contact of soil. The untreated water have lot of toxic and heavy metals. You may say water pollution is also a reason for soil pollution.

       Effects

  • Urban wastes harmful for human health
  • Mining and smelting makes the soil fertile
  • Biological agents are harm the development and existence of flora and fauna

      Remedies

  • Do not litter
  • Use dustbin
  • Reduce use of plastic
  • Spraying of pesticides must be reduced
  • Sewage treatment before dumping wastes

Health effects of Soil Pollution 

Plants are the largest and only producers present on earth. They depend on the soil, because all their required nutrients and water comes from soil, if it is polluted the pollutants move in plants and the effect will be seen on the consumers who consume directly or their products. The heavy metals and toxic elements enter in the animal and human body which may lead them in several disabilities and diseases. 

So what you have seen in unusual in soil.... .. Tell us... 

Saturday

Can Humans Survive Without Plants?


Plants are autotrophic and animals are heterotrophic. Thus plants are the primary source of food for animals. One way or another, all animals are getting their food from plants. Besides food, autotrophs liberate oxygen — very important to all eukaryotic life.
Plants directly or indirectly responsible for our environment regulation. Plants helps to clean air, prevent soil erosion and its pollution at some extent. 

Why we are dependent on plants? Because

  1. They provide our daily and basic needs, e.g: fuels, cloth, food etc
  2. They maintain our environment purifies air,  produces oxygen which is crucial for us. 
  3. Maintain temperature by reducing the effects of global warming. 
So if autotrophs were not on Earth, the heterotrophs would die, not be able to survive.
So here I concluded that Humans will not be able to survive even there are lesser number of plants available on earth.  
If we don't stop harming our environment then may be these situations arise that one day we have not enough resources to survive!

Water Pollution

                    
Water is the basic requirement of every living organisms, and it is daily consumed. Many diseases spread through water. There are several reasons which contaminate the water, like toxic chemicals from industries, garbage,  and sewage. 
Lady causing water pollution Causes of water pollution

Pollution in Water                                                                   

Fresh water is the most important sources of life on the earth. Any living thing may survive without food for days however it is impossible to imagine life without water and oxygen. The ever-increasing human population enhances the demand of water for purpose like drinking, washing, performing industrial processes, irrigation crops, arranging swimming pools and others water-sports centre. Water pollution is done by the people of all over the world because of increasing demand and competition of luxuries life. Waste product from the people activities are spoiling the whole water and decreasing the amount of oxygen available in the water. When we drink the polluted water, harmful chemicals and other pollutants goes inside our body and deteriorates all the body organs functioning and puts our lives in danger. Such harmful chemicals also disturb the lives of animals and plants greatly. When plants absorb dirty water through their roots, the stop growing and die.
Such pollutants are altering the physical, chemical, thermal and biological characteristics of the water and adversely affecting the lives inside as well as outside the water.  It is the main issue affecting human lives in many ways. It is the most dangerous and worst form of pollution putting lives in danger. The water we drink daily looks very clear however contained verities of microscopic pollutants floating inn it. Our earth is covered with water almost 70% of total so a little change in it could affect lives worldwide. Water pollution is the big environmental and social issue all across the world. It has reached to the critical point now. All the pollutants are very harmful to the environment.

      Sources

  • Agricultural pollution
  • River dumping
  • Marine dumping
  • Oil pollution
  • Nuclear Reactor's Hot water/ Hot water released by industries (Thermal Pollution in Water

      Effects

  • Ground water contamination from pesticides causes reproductive damage within wildlife in ecosystems
  • Swimming in and drinking contaminated water causes skin rashes and health problem like cancer, reproductive problem, typhoid fever and stomach sickness in human
  • Human-produces litter of items such as plastic bag can get aquatic animals caught and killed from suffocation
  • Water pollution causes flooding due to the accumulation of the solid waste in the streams and rivers

      Remedies

  • Do not throw industrial, farm or other waste material o sewage into the river
  • City water should be treated properly
  • Oil spill should be prevented
  • Dead bodies should not throw in water bodies
  • Boil water before drinking


Health effects of Water Pollution 

Consumption or use of contaminated water may cause severe diseases: 
Contaminated water is unhealthy and unfit for the health, it creates gastrointestinal problems which may be severe if contaminant is virus or bacteria. Sometimes viral infections are also spread through the water e. g Ebola infection. 
Children who consume unhealthy water have poor growth and development. 


So, Always consume clean water, 
Comment what are you doing for preventing water pollution? 

Wednesday

Air Pollution


Air is the outer covering and an essential part of our environment. Air provide oxygen and carbondioxide to animals and plants. Air is the only source of them, that's why we breathe.

Pollution in Air

It refers to the contamination of atmospheric air due to presence of some substance and gases which have poisonous effect. 
Day by day the fresh air of our environment is getting polluted due to mixing of biological molecules and some other harmful material. Such polluted air is causing health problems. It is most important environmental issues which requires to be notices and solved by the efforts of all of us. It is the most serious problem of the current time all over the world mostly in the large cities because of the huge level of industrialisation. The release of such air pollutants in heavy concentrations such as smog, solid materials, harmful gases, particles, paint, batteries contain lead, cigarettes release carbon monoxide, transport means releases carbon dioxide and other toxic substances to the atmosphere etc are getting settled over the city, causing air pollution and health hazards to the people. It is continuously damaging the whole ecological system and affecting the lives of plants and animal as well. Lots of dirty waste produced by people on daily basis especially in the big cities polluting the whole atmospheric air to a great extent. The release of gaseous pollutants from burning fuel of motors vehicles, industrial processes, burning of garbage, etc are contributing to the air pollution. Some natural pollutants like pollen, dust, soil particles, natural gas, etc are also the sources of air pollution. They are also called air pollutants.
Causes and contributions of countries in air pollution
   

      Sources

  • Mobile sources- such as car, trucks, trains, and buses
  • Stationary sources- such as power plant, oil refineries, industrial facilities, and factories
  • Area sources- such as agricultural areas, cities, and wood burning fireplaces


       Effects 

  • Acid rain
  • Ozone layer depletion
  • Green house effect and global warming


       Remedies 

  • Avoid smoking indoors
  • Use craft supplies in well-ventilated areas
  • Make sure gas stove is well ventilated
  • Remove carpeting if possible
  • Filters must be used in chimneys of industries

Health Effects of Air pollution 

Every living species requires oxygen except plants they require Carbondioxide for their metabolism and other body requirements. If along with oxygen other particles and molecules enter in body have adverse effects on health:-
  • Alveolar Damage/Shrinkage
  • Metabolic disability 
  • Toxcity in body
  • Asthma 
  • Head ache
  • Poor growth 
  • Low life span
  • Heart Problems 



Effects of Air pollution showing impact on heart,  lungs and other body parts
Health effects of Air Pollution 






See

TOP POLLUTED INDIAN CITIES 


So, what do you think about what are some other ways to prevent air pollution and our earth. comment..!!.. ............... 

Monday

Pollution | A Threat to Environment

                                                                               Environment and Pollution 

No doubt humans are eradicating and disturbing the equilibrium of the environment. Our environment have all the necessary things which a living organism required, but what we are doing we are exhausting and making unavailable for others if not then for our future generations. Pollution is the main reason behind this because more over the pollution lesser is the growth of environment ( here I say 'Ecosystem').
Environmental Pollution
Relationships between the pollution with each other

Pollution 

Pollution means presence of anything in the system which is not naturally found in that or presence in unproportionate manner. It is the process of making the environment land water and air dirty by adding harmful substance to it which causes imbalance in the environment.
Environmental pollution is a serious problem of the industrialized societies. The industrial development & the green revolution have adversely affected the environment. Day by day pollution has been increasing & imbalance has threatened the very survival of all forms of life. It is threat to the whole world. People have converted the life supporting system of the entire living world into their own resources and have vastly disturbed the natural ecological balance. It is defined as the unfavourable alteration of our surroundings. In India allay the source of water lie rivers lakes ponds and wells have been polluted and are unfit for drinking. As a result of the increased use of fertilizers, the rivers seas and oceans have become contaminated with harmful pollutants. Pollution is a product of people activities which directly or indirectly  responsible for the changes in environment. All changes in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of land, air, or water than harm human life and other living things. Population explosion, rapid industrialisation deforestation unplanned urbanization scientific and technological advancement. 
Pollution occurs in different forms like air, water, soil, radioactive, noise, heat, light. All forms of pollution have two sources of matter like point and non-point sources. The point sources are easy to find while the non-point sources are hard to find and hard to control. 

 TYPES OF POLLUTION 

Different types of pollutions occur and effect on people and the environment as a whole.

1) Air pollution

It refers to the contamination of atmospheric air due to presence of some substance and gases which have poisonous effect. Day by day the fresh air of our environment is getting polluted due to mixing of biological molecules and some other harmful material. Such polluted air is causing health problems.

2) Water pollution

Fresh water is the most important sources of life on the earth. Any living thing may survive without food for days however it is impossible to imagine life without water and oxygen. The ever-increasing human population enhances the demand of water for purpose like drinking, washing, performing industrial processes, irrigation crops, arranging swimming pools and others water-sports centre. Water pollution is done by the people of all over the world because of increasing demand and competition of luxuries life. 

3) Soil pollution

It occurs due to incorporation of unwanted chemicals in the soil due to human activities. Use of insecticides and pesticides absorbs the nitrogen compounds from the soil making it unfit for plants to drive nutrition from. Soil pollution refers to the mixing of human made chemicals like industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals, and other harmful disposal of wastes from houses, factories, etc. into the natural soil which causes land degradation and makes it unfit for the cropping.

4) Radioactive pollution

It is highly dangerous when it occurs. It can occur dur to nuclear plant malfunctions, improper nuclear waste disposal, accidents, etc. It can cause cancer, infertility, blindness, defects at the time of birth; can sterile soil and affect air and water. Radioactivity is radioactive decay or emission of particles (neuron, proton or heavier particles) from an atom or nucleus. Recently radioactive elements are also used in research and medicine. These pollutants are directly linked to nuclear energy.

5) Noise pollution

The unwanted sound that can have deleterious effects on human health and environmental quality. It is commonly generated inside many industrial facilities and some other workplaces, but it also comes from highway, railway, and airplane traffic and from outdoor construction activities. It has become a serious problem for human health. The noisy atmosphere in which we are living is an obstacle in securing good health. 

6) Thermal pollution

Thermal pollution is the degradation of water quality by any process that changes ambient water temperature. Thermal pollution is usually associated with increases of water temperature in a stream, lake or ocean due to the discharge of heated water from industrial processes, such as the generation of electricity. Increase in ambient water temperature also occur in streams where shading vegetation along the banks is removed or where sediments have made the water more turbid. It is due to excess heat in the environment creating unwanted changes over long time periods; due to huge number of industrial plants, deforestation and air pollution.

7) Light pollution    

It occurs due to prominent excess illumination of an area. It is largely visible in big cities, on bill boards, in sports or entertainment events at the night. In residential areas the lives of the inhabitants are greatly affected by this. It also affects the astronomical observations and activities by making the stars almost invisible. Bright lightning in the function, big cities, etc. causes light pollution. Light pollution is also known as photopollution, it is the presence of anthropogenic light in the night environment. Light pollution occurs at night and is obtrusive, inappropriate or excessive artificial light.




Saturday

Biotic v/s Abiotic

Have you heard these two terms yet, in environmental science these two words plays vital role and they have unique meaning. Whenever we talk about ecosystem we must include Biotic and Abiotic.  Why? How? Read carefully! !

Biotic 

The living biomass/component of ecosystem is commonly referred as Biotic.  The biotic components interact directly with other living organisms in the ecosystem. Mostly our ecosystem is balanced by the biotic components. If the living organisms are replaced by non-living than the ecosystem have no meaning.
Biotic comprises of : fungi,  bacteria,  plants, and all other living species.
Performing chemistry experiments

Effects of Biotic factors:-

They affect directly or indirectly to living species within an environment. The biotic factors include disease, parasitism and predation. The smaller organisms spread disease by finding higher species as host some become parasite and some harmful.  While the higher species kill the smaller ones and feeds on them.  All these interaction you will find in food chain of ecosystem.

Abiotic 

The non living matter present in the ecosystem is all Abiotic components. They don't play any role in biomass but they influence them most. They act like environmental factors on the biotic components. However Biotic and Abiotic are interdependet on each other.  
Abiotic comprises of : water,  soil,  pH,  temperature, sun light,  and air etc. 

Effects of Abiotic factors:-

Abiotic factors affects the ability of the species to survive and reproduce  in the environment. Some times these factors are favorable and some time not. Abiotic factors limit the growth of weak organisms, those who have ability to pass in harsh environmental conditions can survive this limits and controls thier population within the environment.

Interaction between Biotic and Abiotic

The significance of Biotic and Abiotic factors comes with their interactions with each other. For an healthy ecosystem all the interactions need to be in a place. 
A common example of abiotic interaction in plants. Water, sunlight and carbon dioxide are necessary for plants to grow. The biotic interaction is that plants use water, sunlight and carbon dioxide to create their own nourishment through a process called photosynthesis. On a larger scale, abiotic interactions refer to patterns such as climate and seasonality. Factors such as temperature, humidity and the presence or absence of seasons affect the ecosystem. For instance, some ecosystems experience cold winters with a lot of snow. An animal such as a fox within this ecosystem adapts to these abiotic factors by growing a thick, white-colored coat in the winter. Decomposers such as bacteria and fungi are examples of biotic interactions on such a scale. Decomposers function by breaking down dead organisms. This process returns the basic components of the organisms to the soil, allowing them to be reused within that ecosystem.
Thus the interactions of the biotic and abiotic factors makes a healthy and growing ecosystem.


Sunday

GODS and GHOSTS !

Before starting I must clear that this article is not intend to hurt any religion or caste these are the personal experience and theory given by me.
Since my childhood I only think about evils,  gods and ghosts that what possibility that they exist?  even my grandparents tells stories of them which are pretty much interesting and have a lot of moral and ethical values. As I grow up, My interest takes me towards science which completely denies their existence. So I recall the stories and the moral values in them and tried to find my answers. I found that many years ago when the humans are developing they are living and behaving same like animals, some of them evolved themselves better and used their constructive mind to make humans better,  we call them ''Rishi-Muni'' or ''Sadhu''. In the Indian history you will find these Rishi's have a wide and important role in society.  Actually they are the Doctors, Scientists and Engineers at that time,  you may find all that in Vedas,  and Indian epic stories.

How the concept of GOD came in existence! 

According to historical aspects  when humans behaved ruthless and become unkind, everywhere is crime and people don't think of their personal life then the Rishi or Sadhu came to an point that If they have some kind of fear and hope then they might become good person and get busy in their own work. Keeping this fact in mind they created a word GOD, and said that he is our leader we should follow him worship him and we all are child of god they created us. And then they introduced lot of stories about GOD which are being used to tell stories to next generation for giving moral and ethical values.

How the concept of GHOST came in existence! 

Even when the most of people starting believing in GOD and his existence some might have doubt or start going against him. They do their crimes and evil deeds at night (mostly night). Then the Rishi's have some problems to face them so they Created a concept of Ghost and signifies them that they are the bad souls of living ones who are killed by someone and they are very dangerous. They take revenge of their death. By this they almost controlled the situation and for making believe strongly they created lot of stories. 

How the personal and social problems controlled by Rishi's? 

When every one is living their life they do their daily works and uses the natural resources well. They cut trees and plants without any boundaries. Then Rishi's realised that our environment is on threat if it is going like this than soon there are no plants and trees.  Then they tried to teach them the importance of trees and plants along with uses and their application. But they failed because people didn't understand well. Then the Rishi's got an idea that why shouldn't we relate them with their GODs. But relating all plants with religion creates a doubt in people's mind so they related important plants and trees with God and large, big and woody with Ghosts. They thought by this people learn their usefulness, but it has an opposite reaction they start worshipping them planted in their gardens and at their homes. The big trees remains part of forests and remain undisturbed long years. But the protection of environment is successful. 
Every time they have problems they find suitable solution which is scientific but related with religion applicable for everyone.So what are your opinions about this.! 
Comment If you have experienced any thing like this......... ....!!!!!

Amino Acids | Health Supplement


  Amino acids are the building blocks of protein as well as of the body. Some of the amino acids which are the derivatives of the essential amino acids are very useful for growth and development however human body can synthesize them but during stress of poor metabolic activities they may be externally supplemented. Here are few of them described:                                                 

L-Glutamine is an amino acid. Generally it is synthesized in the body in a limited amount. During stress the requirement of glutamine is increased by the body. Glutamine is found in muscles. The mineral salts are also added to compensate the loss of ions during the metabolic activity.
AVAILABILITY OF GLUTAMINE
The amino acid is synthesized in the body in the form of glutamic acid but in limited amount during stress. The dietary source of glutamine is beef and chicken. Thus it become hard for vegans to meet their requirement. In that case glutamine is externally supplemented in the body.

HEALTH BENEFITS

  • Build immunity
  • Gut function
  • Helps to counteract oxidative stress
  • Growth and development of muscles 



L-Arginine is an amino acid require

Advancement and Challenges in Biopesticides Development

The science is as yet thought to be youthful and developing. A portion of the Biopesticides is being worked on, and may end up being fantastic contrasting options to the compound pesticides. A large number of them depend on the locally accessible plants like Neem, Garlic, and Triphala and so forth which can be effectively prepared and made accessible to the ranchers to enhance the Biopesticides utilization.
Bimolecules are being the most recent activity which had been assumed a critical part in headway and proficiency of Biopesticides. (Engineers, 2008). The GMO's are being the most recent and new headway in the field of Biopesticides. r-DNA innovation is another and perfect progression accomplished in the field of pesticides (e.g.CRISPR-cas framework with single protein effectors).

Nanotechnology

Nano level materials encourage the nuclear level specificity and activity of pesticides just in the focused on condition including particular pH, temperature and nearness of particular mixes. Nanopesticide can decreases the issues which are assessed in compound pesticides (vulnerability on the long haul causing malignancy, liver harm, neural issue and immunotoxicity) and show more bioavailability than conventional Biopesticides. Nanoparticle Bacillus thuringiensis have demonstrated expanded efficiency, great scattering and wet capacity, biodegradable in soil and condition, not so much lethal but rather more photograph generative, with surely knew harmful energy and dangerous elements, and are observed to be steady. If there should arise an occurrence of growth, Nano-chitosan definition had been set up by various techniques. Radical unite polymerization of acrylic corrosive onto chitosan demonstrated antifungal and insecticidal movement against some chose soybean seed borne organisms. Trichoderma based compounds (chitin and glucans) are known to demonstrate bug safe movement. Then again plant based Nano definitions, for example, eucalyptus based Nano emulsions was found to display antimicrobial movement.

Recombinant DNA Biotechnology


Recombinant DNA innovation have been utilized to enhance bacterial bug spray viability and connected to enhance larvicides by controlling and recombining quality for vector control. Mosquitocidal Cyt and Cry proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis alongside the paired poison of Bacillus sphaericus were joined to display enhanced adequacy against culex species. These recombinant builds were utilized as bug sprays as well as indicated compelling control of the mosquito vectors for Dengue fever, filariasis and malaria. The first recombinant vector was created in th field of agriculture to prevent the crops of cotton from insect Bt cotton.  This technology is developing and untill we insert genes which are resistance of insects and pests. 

Future Aspects 


The Bimolecules particularly protein particles are intended to create cutting edge pesticides, which work effectively on bothers. It has been engaged that Biopesticides should address the issue of end client, these are: 
  • targeted, maintainable and earth agreeable 
  • safe for nourishment utilize and human wellbeing 
  • Effective and simple to use.

Challenges 

The development of Biopesticides in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) system by combining ecological science in to genomic technologies.
  • RNA interference can’t be commercialized as it has negative impacts on the plants by itself. 
  • The gene manipulation is not work as expected in some cases.
  • Value added benefits, such as plant health, yields and quality and an increase in beneficials, both traditional and organic cultivation.
Bibliography 
  • International Journal of Biotechnology and Biomedical Sciences p-ISSN 2454-4582, e￾ISSN 2454-7808, Volume 2, Number 1; January-June, 2016 pp. 73-77 “Review of Current Research Advances in Microbial and Phyto-biopesticides” by S Krishna Sundari1*, Aditi Singh2 and Pooja Yadava3 1Biotechnology Department JIIT, Noida 2,3JIIT, NOIDA E-mail: 1krishna.sundari@jiit.ac.in, 2aditi.aditi.singh22@gmail.com, 3poojayadava1891@gmail.com 18. http://googleweblight.com/i?u=http
  • Engineers, 2008 NPCS Board of Consultant and Engineers ASIA PACIFIC BUSINESS PRESS inc. 1/10/2008

CLONING | Advantage to Prokaryotes or US!

Scientifically the species which are the exact copies of their parents are termed as clones and the process is called as cloning. Clones are formed by asexual reproduction without any genetic alterations ( as occurs in sexual reproduction ). The species produced via this type of technique have limited life spans and low chances of survival. 
According to the theory of evolution, the species  which fits themselves best in environment have better chances of survival and every species have some sort of variations as compared to their parents which makes them suitable for the changing environment. Its amazing that the Prokaryotes produces via asexual reproduction in which are exact copy of their parents, still most of them survives in harsh environmental conditions. 

Post Reproduction Adaptations 

It is  seen in species that after the reproduction they might adapt some changes at genetic level both Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes. This mostly seen in Prokaryotes because they need lot of changes to survive.
Single Cell species which reproduce through asexual reproduction have greater abilities to adapt the environmental changes at their genetic level so that their next progenies will already have and not facing problems. But this adaptation is very quick and limited only few species are able to adapt rest of them are dead. This maintains their population because sigle cell species are disease causing agents for Eukaryotes,  if their population increase drastically others may face problems.

Why they produce via Asexual mode? 

The Prokaryotes are harmful for Eukaryotes as they are disease causing agents. However they contribute a lot in the ecosystem.( discussed in next section). Here are the major reasons:

  • Their population is controlled because they  replicate themselves as very high frequency if all of them able to survive than whole ecosystem will unbalanced soon. 
  • Being a single cell they have best mode of regulation of their next generation, however some species are able to produce via sexual mode of reproduction during extreme conditions e.g: Aspergillus

Application in Biotechnology 

Their rapid growth and multiplication attracted scientists and researchers to use them as natural bioreactors. Along with their life cycle they produce some metabolic chemicals which are benifitable sometime and sometime harmful. 

  • Production of antibiotics by  bacteria and fungi. Streptomycin,tetracycline and erythromycin are some of the commonly known antibiotics which are made from fungi and bacteria.
  • Production of Chemicals, Enzymes and other Bioactive Molecules
  • Examples of acid producers are
  • Aspergillus niger (a fungus) of citric acid
  • Acetobacter aceti (a bacterium) of acetic acid
  • Clostridium butylicum (a bacterium) of butyric acid
  • Lactobacillus (a bacterium) of lactic acid.
  • Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is used for commercial production of ethanol.
  • Lipases are used in detergent formulations and are helpful in removing oily stains from the laundry.
  • The bottled juices are clarified by the use of pectinases and proteases.
  • Streptokinase produced by the bacterium Streptococcus and modified by genetic engineering is used as a ‘clot buster’ for removing clots from the blood vessels of patients who have undergone myocardial infraction leading to heart attack.
  • Another bioactive molecule, cyclosporin A, that is used as an immunosuppressive agent in organ-transplant patients, is produced by the fungus Tnchoderma polysporum.
  • Statins produced by the yeast Monascus purpureus have been commercialized as blood-cholesterol lowering agents. It acts by competitively inhibiting the enzyme responsible for synthesis of cholesterol.
  • Conversion of Milk into Curd by Lactobacillus. 
  • Fermentation of milk in industries. 
  • Sewage treatment.
  • Production of Biogas. 
  • Microbes as biocontrol agents : Biocontrol refers to the use of biological methods for controlling plant diseases and pests. Biological agents are a better alternative to weedicides and pesticides.
  • Microbes as Biofertilisers. 
Bibliography 
NCERT  text books from 6 to 12.