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Saturday

Traditional Water Purification Techniques

Water pollution is the major problem which is being faced by every country and due to water pollution, it is not healthy to drink and doing any household activity.

Traditional Water purification techniques

Traditional purification techniques of water now being shifted to Modern purification techniques
  • Boiling
  • Sunlight Exposure
  • Chlorination
  • Flocculation
  • Filtration-Straining
  • Three-Pot Treatment

Thursday

AN OVERVIEW OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

Biotechnology deals with the field of bio-sciences with technology to generate efficient and better biological assays and applications. In biotechnology living systems are introduced or modified with the high-throughput techniques to amplify the results and lowering the cost and time. 
For example, Modern breads and cheese are manufactured by using microbes which are genetically modified and targeted for specific biological pathways to give suitable or desired products. Modern biotechnology is totally different from the conventional biotechnology. In conventional biotechnology the techniques and results are very poor and very much labour intensive, but in modern biotechnology the desired ones are only harvested by using modern technology of gene transfer and gene editing.  

Recent advancements in biotechnology are helping modern technologies and sciences to deal with the social needs: 

Cure and Heal the World

There are 250+ vaccines and medicines are developed with the help of biotechnology to cure and prevent the disease. It also includes detection and its techniques to cure or diagnose any disease at early stage.

Fuel the World

Modern biotechnology has grown so far, Bio-fuels like Ethanol and Methane are produced by using yeast and other micro-organisms. The fuels produced by biotechnology are eco-friendly and said to be next generation fuels.

Production of High quality Foods

Today the available foods are having multiple qualities and have greater amount of nutrition with long lasting lifespan. This is done by using modern biotechnology. Green revolution was the first step towards the modern biotechnology which focused on high yielding crops.


Applications of Biotechnology:


In Agriculture 

Modern agriculture is totally based on the biotechnology, and biotechnology has modified and upgraded several crop species to increase the yield these include:
Tomatoes: Their shelf life is increased by introducing the hybrid RNA which slower downs the process of its peel degradation.
Sugarcane: The length of the plant is modified by making hybrids of two sugarcane species to stand for more time.
Wheat: length of the plants is lowered down by gene editing due to which their stems become strong and don’t fell down in blowing air.
Rice: The varieties are improved or can be said to be fortified in higher nutritional content.  
And many more are modified for different environmental and character needs. So far biotechnology is also used in making plants resistance from pest making pest resistance. Some other biological products and their production are facilitated by biotechnologies which are essential oils and secondary metabolites which are being used in medical and other industry.
Biofortified mustard plant... Biotechnology

 In Medicine 

When Biotechnology deals with medical science it becomes medical biotechnology. Role of biotechnology in the medical science speeded up the treatment and diagnosis process of the diseases. However biotechnology is still young and evolving, new efficient techniques are yet to be discovered.
Gene therapy and DNA fingerprinting began a revolution in medical sciences; DNA fingerprinting is widely used in early diagnosis of the hereditary diseases while Gene therapy corrects the genes which are defective. However Gene therapy is most costly and available for very few diseases. 
Biotechnology uses transgenic techniques to obtain several biological molecules which are used in medicines called as bio-pharmaceuticals. Transgenic animals and plants are made to obtain these desired products.     
   

In Environment

Modern biotechnology is dealing in to protect and restore the environment. Biotechnology contributes to pollution control and ways to reduce the pollution. Also alternatives are developed and tested regularly to for better implementation. It also focuses on reducing the environmental hazards like harmful chemicals and their extraction from environment etc. 
Today’s major problem is environmental pollution and the main causes are plastics. Biotechnology is developing the bio-plastics can be a great alternative to plastics. This bio-plastic is more eco-friendly with environment and less harmful.
Conservation of natural resources and Plants are also taken care by biotechnology. New ways and techniques are also developed by biotechnologists to save the plants and natural resources.  


ROLE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY IN DISEASE DIAGNOSIS 


In order to treat any disease it is most important to identify and diagnose the disease first. The early stage and causes of the disease are diagnosed for this several techniques are developed like ELISA- Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay Which is used to diagnose HIV and other viral infections. Blotting techniques are used to diagnose various disease and hereditary disorders.

TRANGENIC ANIMALS – greatest achievement of biotechnology  


Transgenic animals are the genetically modified animals which have been introduced by the gene of interest. They are also called as GMO (Genetically modifies Organisms).  Examples: Rats, Mouse, Sheep, Goat etc.

Importance of Transgenic animals:

They are used as model organisms in the pre-clinical trials.
Used to study the effects of drugs.
Used to study and development of gene regulations.
Study of toxicology

INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY 

Modern food, medical and agriculture industries completely rely on the biotechnology. It is obvious to use cheaper products than costly ones, which is done by biotechnology. Several biotechnological techniques reduced the production costs and time by using natural or modified machinery called as bio-reactors or carried out in-vivo. You can monitor your daily stuffs available in the market and reach to the conclusion. 

DISADVANTAGES OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

No doubt biotechnology has very much importance in modern science, but due to an adverse impact it has some limits: 
Through the transgene experiments, the wild gnomes are getting disappeared or you can say it as gene pollution. Alterations in one’s gene over long time causes in the deletion of wild genome. 

Tuesday

Vitamins and Minerals requirement in a day

Following data can be used to make diet plan be sure about your daily calorie uptake based on your requirements, the following table is made at 2300 Kcal per average person.  
 diet rich foods having vitamins and minerals

To Know More about Vitamins click here

Follow ICMR guidlines if you have any deficiency. Click here to know disease caused by vitamins deficiency.
To know more about FSSAI and ICMR Click here

RDA VALUES BY FSSAI AND ICMR [STANDARD]

VITAMINS & MINERALS CONSUMPTIONS AS PER FSSAI GUIDELINES (minimum requirement a day)

 


1.VITAMINS

PER 100Kcal

PER 2300 kcal

minimum

Minimum/day

A(RATINOL)

35 mcg

805 mcg

B1(THIAMINE)

0.06mg

1.38 mg

B2(RIBOFLAVIN)

0.08mg

1.84 mg

B3(NIACIN)

0.9mg

20.7 mg

B5(PANTOTHENIC ACID)

0.15mg

3.45 mg

B6(PYRIDOXINE)

0.08mg

1.84 mg

B7(BIOTIN)

0.75mcg

17.25 mcg

B9(FOLIC ACID)

10 mcg

230 mcg

B12(CYNOCOBALAMINE)

0.07 mcg

1.6 mcg

C(ASCORBIC ACID0

2.25 mcg

21.75 mcg

D(ERGOCALCIFEROL)

0.5 mcg

11.5 mcg

E(TOCOPHEROL)

0.5g of polyunsaturated fatty acids expressed as linoleic acid but in no case less than 0.1mg per 100available Kcal

2.3 mg

K(PHYLLOQUINONE)

3.5mcg

80.5 mcg

2.MINERALS

SODIUM

30mg

690 mg

CHLORIDE

30mg

690 mg

POTASSIUM

80mg

1840 mg

CALCIUM

35mg

805 mg

PHOSPHORUS

30mg

690 mg

MAGNESIUM

7.5mg

172.5 mg

IRON

0.5mg

11.5 mg

ZINC

0.5mg

11.5 mg

COPPER

60mcg

1380 mcg

IODINE

6.5mcg

149.5 mcg

SELENIUM

2.5mcg

57.5 mcg

MANGANESE

0.05mg

1.15 mg

CHROMIUM

1.25mcg

28.75 mcg

MOLYBDENUM

3.5mcg

80.5 mcg

Saturday

DIY Cures for Common Skin issues

Skin is the most sensitive and first line of defense as well as represents beauty. To remain Healthy, skin needs fresh nutrients and proper natural cares. Here are some interesting DIY hacks for common skin issues...... ;
Anti-oxidants work as anti-ageing agents, the naturally occurring fruits and vegetables are best solutions for skin problems. Using natural chemicals we have one benefit they can be easily degraded by our body cells without any negative effects. 

LEMON AND TOMATO ๐Ÿ… 

FOR ALL SKIN TYPES 

Lemon contains citric acid which can change pH value of the skin. The pH value determines the skin's acidity or alkalinity.  Tomato juice soothes the skin. 
Apply fresh lemon and tomato juice after washing your face. Wash it off after waiting for  10-15 minutes. 

A TOUCH OF CURD 

FOR DRY SKIN 

Curd contains Vitamin C and Vitamin B's in high quantity with Zinc and Calcium which makes it natural skin care. Banana contains Lectin. It is a kind of protein that destroys acne causing bacteria. Mix well banana and Honey with curd before using.
In case of dry skin, the pH level is more and needs to be reduced. Mix curd and honey in equal quantities after that add a smaller portion of banana to it. Apply and wash it off in 10-15 minutes.

POMEGRANATE PUNCH 

FOR SENSITIVE SKIN 

Pomegranate is a rich source of vitamin C and has anti-ageing and anti-oxidant properties. Apply probiotic curd properly on the face as a pack and wash it off after 5 minutes.  
Make a face pack using pomegranate paste and 1 table spoon honey.  Apply this paste on your face and neck and wash it off with rose water after 30 minutes. 
Fresh rose flower
Red Rose 

Skin is very much sensitive part of the body and shows reaction with any type of uncertainty. Proper natural cure makes these problems away.
Disclaimer:- For any recurring and long term problem related to skin consult the expert. 

Wednesday

WHY TO USE DIANABOL (METHANDINONE OR DBOL) and it's SIDE EFFECTS

Gym lover uses dianabol as a supplement to increase their muscle size in short duration of time, without knowing the side effects of the dianabol.  Yes, dianabol increases the muscle mass within 4 to 6 week by  increasing the protein synthesis in our body, the health supplements should be consumed under the guidance of the health professionals, other wise you may face these side effects :

Side effects of Dianabol 

Besides it have lot of benefits  but it is really harmful to use without the consult of any  Doctor. Dianabol increases the Blood pressure of individual, acne starts appearing more on face and specially on back,  mood swings arises on normal situation and many other problems arise who use Dianabol as a supplement of body building. Proper doses are taken to avoid more serious problems.  The major side effects occurs to the liver, liver damages  because when you take Dianabol enzymatic activity increases in the liver therefore liver goes in the stressed condition and will damage, if high doses are taken by the individual for long. Person must use liver protector to avoid the damage of the liver like Liv52 and Milk thistle, milk thistle is not only used a liver protect but it is also used to cure the liver from prior use of dianabol so one who have used dianabol and didn’t took liver protector can use it now to cure it.
If you use dianabol than keep in trace the blood pressure of your body.
Testosterone levels are also suppressed in our body; it lowers the count of sperm in our semen. It makes sperm weaker due to which they cannot reach the egg and can’t start the processes of fertilization which is required to produce baby.


ADMINISTRATION AND USE

Dianabol is taken orally and injections are also used to introduce them in the body. Usually  use of dianabol are divided in three stages- 
Beginners minimum dose 10mg-15mg and maximum 25mg, 
Intermediate minimum 25mg-30mg and maximum 40mg whereas 
Advance minimum 40mg-50mg and maximum 80mg. some of advance trainer claims that they use 100mg during their bulking cycle. Any excess dose can create a serious problem to the individual; one should have a great knowledge of the dose and how to use it in proper way.
You must prefer your health consultant to use the muscle gainers.
Amount/ dose of dianabol to be consumed by a person
Directions to Consume

WHAT TODO TO REDUCE THE SIDE EFFECT OF DIANABOL?

A proper PTC (Post Cycle Therapy) is required to remove the toxic substance of Dianabol from the body. When you end your Dianabol cycle it is important to do post cycle therapy to help the body to start the production of testosterone on its own as dianabol suppresses the production of testosterone. Bodybuilder usually uses CLOMID and NOLVADEX for 4 to 6 weeks and takes doses around 150mg or 40mg respectively as PTC.
Day 1 to 10 HCG is taken around 500-1000iยต
Day 11 to week 3 = 40mg clomid and 150mg nolvadex
Week 4 to 5 = 20 mg clomid and 100mg nolvadex
Week 6 to 7 = 10mg clomid and 75mg of nolvadex
( Concentration of clomid and nolvadex are reduced to make body comfortable to produce the testosterone.)
The medications in this therapy are recommended by my health professional by examining my health and side effects, Please consult your Health professionals before starting.

Product of PTC
Clomid in market is available by name = Siphene 50 or Clofert 50.
Nolvadex = Mamofen 20 or Tamoxinfin 10 or Tamtero 10.
HCG = Corion, Hucog-5000hp.


Note: The product in this article which are mentioned are for indicative purposes, if you are willing to use them consult with your Health professionals or Doctor. 

Monday

Pollution scenario in India

With rapid increase in population, the levels of pollution and their sources also increased alarmingly. WHO states that India's pollution rate is very much high in past decades, this is due to over use of pollutants knowing it effects.

Which pollution is most affecting India?

All the pollution Air, Water,  and Land are interconnected to each other in a disciplinary way that one have impact on others. 
But based on the situations Air pollution is the leading cause of the several Health problems in India. This is due to Rapid increase in the industries, who do not follow GMP (Good manufacturing Practices). After Industries the vehicles and refrigerators responsible for air pollution.
The major pollutants are released by these two components. 
Air pollution in major cities Delhi,  Pune,  Jaipur
Scenario of Pollution in Major Indian Cities

Top Polluted Cities In India of 2018 


So in which city you are and How much it is polluted....... Rank your city based on Air quality....! 

Saturday

INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGICAL DATABASES


As biology has increasingly turned into a data-rich science, the need for storing and communicating large datasets has grown rapidly.  The  examples are the nucleotide sequences, the protein sequences, and the 3D structural data produced by X-ray crystallography and macromolecular NMR
Bioinformatics is the application of Information technology to store, organize and analyze the vast amount of biological data which is available in the form of sequences and structures of proteins (the building blocks of organisms) and nucleic acids (the information carrier). The biological information of nucleic acids is available  as sequences while  the data of proteins is available as sequences and structures. Sequences are represented in single dimension where as the structure contains the three dimensional data of sequences.
There are two main functions of biological databases:


  • Make biological data available to scientists.              As much as possible of a particular type of information should be available in one single place (book, site, and database). Published data may be difficult to find or access and collecting it from the literature is very time- consuming. And not all data is actually published explicitly in an article (genome sequences!).
  • To make biological data available in computer-readable form.



Since analysis of biological data almost always involves computers, having the data in computer-readable form (rather than printed on paper) is a necessary first step.
Types of data generated by  research:
  • Nucleotide sequences (DNA and mRNA)
  • Protein sequences
  • 3-D protein structures
  • Complete genomes and maps


Based on this information and further research also we have 
  • Gene Expression data
  • Polymorphism 


Historical Aspects behind the Databases 

The first idea about creating a database was came in existence when Sanger first discovered the method to sequence proteins.
The first database was created within a short period after the Insulin protein sequence was made available in 1956. Incidentally, Insulin is the first protein to be sequenced. The sequence of Insulin consisted of just 51 residues (analogous to alphabets in a sentence) which characterize the sequence. Around mid nineteen sixties, the first nucleic acid sequence of Yeast tRNA with 77 bases (individual units of nucleic acids) was found out. During this period, 3D structures of proteins were studied and the well known Protein Data Bank was developed as the first protein structure database with only 10 entries in 1972.  This has now grown in to a large database with over 10,000 entries. While the initial databases of protein sequences were maintained at the individual laboratories, the development of a consolidated formal database known as SWISS-PROT protein sequence database was initiated in 1986 which now has about 70,000 protein sequences from more than 5000 model organisms, a small fraction of all known organisms. These huge varieties of divergent data resources are now available for study and research by both academic institutions and industries. These are made available as public domain information in the larger interest of research community through Internet  and CDROMs. These databases are constantly updated with additional entries.

Biological Databases 

Biological databases can be broadly classified into sequence and structure databases. Sequence databases are applicable to both nucleic acid sequences and protein sequences, whereas structure database is applicable to only Proteins. 
Databases in general can be classified in to
  1. Primary Database 
  2. Secondary Database 
  3. Composite Databases 
  4. Structure Databases


A primary database contains information of the sequence or structure alone. Examples of these include Swiss-Prot and PIR for protein sequences, GenBank and  DDBJ for Genome sequences and the Protein Databank for protein structures. In this database the data is originally obtained and maintained for further studies.
Primary Nucleotide Sequence Repository – GenBank, EMBL, DDBJ
Primary Protein Sequence Repositories--PIR-PSD or protein information resource – protein sequence database, at the NBRF (National Biomedical Research Foundation, USA), and SWISS-PROT at the SBI (Swiss Biotechnology Institute, Switzerland 
A secondary database contains derived information from the primary database. A secondary sequence database contains information like the conserved sequence, signature sequence and active site residues of the protein families arrived by multiple sequence alignment of a set of related proteins. A secondary structure database contains entries of  the PDB in an organized way. These contain entries that are classified according to their structure like all alpha proteins, all beta proteins, etc. These also contain information on conserved secondary structure motifs of a particular protein. Some of the secondary database created and hosted by various researchers at their individual laboratories includes SCOP, developed at Cambridge University; CATH developed at University College of London, PROSITE of Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, eMOTIF at Stanford.

Composite database contains a variety of different primary database sources, which obviates the need to search multiple resources. Different composite database use different primary database and different criteria in their search algorithm. Various options for search have also been incorporated in the composite database. The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) which hosts these nucleotide and protein databases in their large high available redundant array of computer servers, provides free access to the various persons involved in research. This also has link to OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) which contains information about the proteins involved in genetic diseases.

Structure Databases  like sequence databases comes in two varieties, primary and secondary. Strictly speaking there is only one database that stores primary structural data  of biological molecules, namely the PDB. In the context of this database, term macromolecule stretches to cover three orders of magnitude of molecular weight from 1000 Daltons to 1000 kilo Daltons Small biological and organic molecules have their structures stored in another primary structure database the CSD, which is also widely used in biological studies. This contains the three dimensional structure of drugs, inhibitors and fragments or monomers of the macromolecule.


Application of the Biological Databases 

Sequence Analysis 

Every new searched sequence is first matched with the sequences present in the databases to identify its functionality and uniqueness.  If the sequence is already present in the databases further studies becomes easier if not then every minute information is collected about it and stored for future reference in databases.

Prediction of Protein Structure 

It is easy to determine the primary structure of proteins in the form of amino acids which are present on the DNA molecule but it is difficult to determine the secondary, tertiary or quaternary structures of proteins. For this purpose either the method of crystallography is used or tools of bioinformatics can also be used to determine the complex protein structures. By comparing the new data with existing data the bioinformatic tools can predict function and structures. 

Genome Annotation 

In genome annotation, genomes are marked to know the regulatory sequences and protein coding. It is a very important part of the human genome project as it determines the regulatory sequences.

Comparative Genomics


Comparative genomics is the branch of bioinformatics which determines the genomic structure and function relation between different biological species. For this purpose, intergenomic maps are constructed which enable the scientists to trace the processes of evolution that occur in genomes of different species. These maps contain the information about the point mutations as well as the information about the duplication of large chromosomal segments, which are extracted from the databases.

Health and Drug discovery

The tools of bioinformatics are also helpful in drug discovery, diagnosis and disease management. Complete sequencing of human genes has enabled the scientists to make medicines and drugs which can target more than 500 genes. Different computational tools and drug targets has made the drug delivery easy and specific because now only those cells can be targeted which are diseased or mutated. It is also easy to know the molecular basis of a disease, stored in the databases.

Conclusion 

The present test is to deal with a huge volume of information, for example, the ones created by the human genome venture, to enhance database configuration, create programming for database access and control, and gadget information passage strategies to make up for the fluctuated PC techniques and frameworks utilized in various research facilities. There is most likely that Bioinformatics apparatuses for proficient research will have huge effect in organic sciences and advancement of human lives.

Thursday

MELAMINE : A MILK POISSON

Melamine is a chemical compound which have greater Nitrogen content. The chemical compound is used to make plastics,  glassware and Floor tiles.  This is a hard plastic substance which is very harmfull for human and animals also. 
Difference between Pure milk and Adulterated mikk
Milk Adulteration : Differences in pure and impure 

Adulterated Milk

The adulteration can be done in many ways in milk, like mixing water adding extra natural fat or protein  which is proven to be fit for health, but adulteration of chemicals which are not fruitful is quiet dangerous and injurious to health.
Since Melamine is white powder like compound thus  it is  easier to mix it with protein and infant milk formula. Generally the food products are first quality checked and assured by the FOOD SAFETY AND  STANDARD AUTHORITY OF INDIA
It can't easily detected in the laboratory tests and the companies sold them without any fear. 
But the chemical compound can't be easily detected in initial tests. Because the assesments are done to identify the amount of protein on the basis of Nitrogen content and luckily this compound is rich in Nitrogen.  When further tests are done to identify the type of protein then it was found that the Nitrogen is present due to Melamine!

Country's Who Banned it 

In 2008, about 3 lacs children of China fall sick due to milk adulteration initially the government didn't  recognize it after  lot of test they found Melamine a main reason and banned its adulteration in milk and in any other food. 
In USA and many other countries also it is banned.  
But in India  the milk factories are using it in small amounts but it also a great threat to children. 

This adulterated milk is also used to make sweets in India. The chemical compound gives hardness to the sweets which is not naturally present in sweets when compared. 

Health effects of Melamine 

  • Cancer: The compound reacts with organic molecules of the body and activate carcinogenic cells 
  • Kidney Stone: Since the compound is used to make tiles,  plastics thus accumulation in kidneys cause stones. 
So what are your opinions on this,  do you feel that the milk you are consuming is pure and do not have any harmful compound... There are much which will be in next articles if you know any one tell us............ 

Friday

Cosmic Radiations : will we survive or not!


Have you ever wondered why there is no life on other planets or humans can't go outside earth without space suit if they are provided with oxygen supply only.  The space suit protect them from cosmic radiations. Here it is..... 

Earth's Magnetic Field 

On earth there is a strong magnetic field which repels the electromagnetic radiations coming from the sun or any object. The Earth's magnetic field is due to the liquid metals present in the core in molten state. 

Advantage for us! 

If human body or any living system is exposed in high electromagnetic radiation they get mutated, even in low field over long time. Earth's magnetic poles repels those fields and don't allow them to expose in our environment. 

What If Earth have no Magnetic field 

According to the astro-science it is believed that if some how the core of any planet is cooled down or destroyed the planet is no more habitable.  And in the case of Earth if it's magnetic field is absent or partially present then we will no longer on Earth. Our DNA is not enough strong to repair it as the rate of mutations start occuring in the presence of electromagnetic radiation. 

Solar Storm 

It is the term used to indicate the electromagnetic radiation coming from sun,  if these radiations coming at higher rates or any eruption occurs at the surface of sun then Solar Storms occur.  Our strong magnetic field repels it at a limited extent depends on the distance. In future if the Resources are not stored then may be these radiations tends to bombard on earth. 

MAGNETIC ERUPTION FROM SUN TO OUR GALAXY
Magnetic eruption from sun to our solar system
Credit: NASA


Saturday

Radioactive Pollution

According to the physics Radiation the emission of energy as electromagnetic waves or as moving subatomic particles, especially high-energy particles which cause ionization. The radiation is not very much fruitful for animals and humans, however modern technology used it in several medical applications. Yes, It is harmful but in higher amount or frequency below a limit it is useful. Here I must say about the electromagnetic waves coming from sun which is reflected back in the universe by earth's magnetic field.

Radiation as a Pollution 

It is highly dangerous when it occurs. It can occur due to nuclear plant malfunctions, improper nuclear waste disposal, accidents, etc. It can cause cancer, infertility, blindness, defects at the time of birth; can sterile soil and affect air and water. Radioactivity is radioactive decay or emission of particles (neuron, proton or heavier particles) from an atom or nucleus. Recently radioactive elements are also used in research and medicine. These pollutants are directly linked to nuclear energy. It contamination also call radiological contamination, is the deposition off or presence of radioactive substances on surfaces or within solids, liquids or gases. The most dangerous long-lived radio nuclides are those emitted by nuclear reactors. It’s most popular use in the past has been in wars where it destroyed entire cities in one go; however, today it is widely used as an energy source to fuel electricity. It may be due to electromagnetic radiation, nuclear radiation, or cosmic radiation.
Electromagnetic radiation occurs through X-rays, gamma rays, UV rays visible light, infrared rays and radio waves.
Nuclear radiation pollution occurs when radioactive atoms like uranium, thorium etc. release radiation in the form of alpha and beta particles. Nuclear radiation also occurs when radioactive elements are produced artificially in nuclear reactors and particle accelerators.
Cosmic radiation takes place due to high energy particles invading the earth and its atmosphere from outer space and the sun. Cosmic rays consist of electrons, protons, helium nuclei, hydrogen nuclei, and the nuclei belonging to heavier elements like carbon and oxygen.

      Sources

  • Nuclear power plant accidents or leakage
  • Improper nuclear waste disposal
  • Uranium mining operations

     Effect


  • Cancer
  • Sterilization
  • Birth defect
  • Mutations which have greater impact on our physique 

     Remedies


  • The protective garments must be worn
  • The natural radiation must be at the permissible limits

Monday

Thermal Pollution

Basically heat is not a contamination you guys are thinking what I am saying Heat as pollution,  well heat is required for everyone living on Earth  because  it is the only mode of transfer of energy, but what if this is increased and make changes to our abiotic components (e.g: Water). 
This over heating is not only caused by Sun, The human activities are involved in the Thermal pollution mostly. 
Interaction of Species with each other

Heat As Pollution    

Thermal pollution is the degradation of water quality by any process that changes ambient water temperature. Thermal pollution is usually associated with increases of water temperature in a stream, lake or ocean due to the discharge of heated water from industrial processes, such as the generation of electricity. Increase in ambient water temperature also occur in streams where shading vegetation along the banks is removed or where sediments have made the water more turbid. It is due to excess heat in the environment creating unwanted changes over long time periods; due to huge number of industrial plants, deforestation and air pollution. It increases the earth’s, temperature, causing drastic climatic changes and extinction of wildlife.
There are four major causes of thermal pollution: The use of water as a cooling agent, deforestation of shorelines, soil erosion and burning of fossil fuels. The foremost cause being the use of water as cooling agent in nuclear power plants and other industrial facilities. In an aquatic system temperature is an important factor which affects physio-chemical parameters of water quality as well as plant, animal and microbial life considerably. Aquatic life is usually well adjusted to seasonal changes inn temperatures which occur naturally. However, man-made changes in temperature of water often cause adverse changes which damage its utility and productivity.

      Sources

  • Urban sprawl
  • Power plants
  • Air pollution particulates that trap heat
  • Deforestation

      Effect
  • Decrease in dissolved oxygen levels
  • Increase in toxins
  • Loss of biodiversity
  • Ecological impact
  • Affects reproductive systems
  • Increases metabolic rate
  • Migration

       Remedies
  • Plants as many trees as possible
  • Cool the water before they put it back in the ocean
  • Burn less coal, oil or gas
  • Reduce mechanical friction

Effects on Living ones

The aquatic ecosystem is commonly disturbed due to the thermal pollution because when the hot water enters the aquatic ecosystem the oxygen dissolving capacity is reduced and the pH of that system also disturbed. These abiotic conditions are most prominently required to run an ecosystem. 
If this Heated water is transferred on soil the eco-friendly microbes die due to change in environment and soil becomes less fertile.
So comment what type of water in your area!! 

Friday

Light Pollution


Sun light is the major source of light on earth, although sunlight also not good for us if it comes to us without passing by ozone. What I am saying is that the sun light contains UV, Infrared and other Magnetic Rays which are harmful to us they are filtered by Ozone layer and our environment to protect us.  But are you sure we are not contaminating our visible light inside our environment,  yes we are! 
The amount and type of light coming  to earth and most of them are deflected back by earth's atmosphere
Here I am not talking about the harmful light coming from sun, I am discussing about the light which is present on earth and how we are making it uncomfortable for living organisms. 

Pollution of Light 

It occurs due to prominent excess illumination of an area. It is largely visible in big cities, on bill boards, in sports or entertainment events at the night. In residential areas the lives of the inhabitants are greatly affected by this. It also affects the astronomical observations and activities by making the stars almost invisible. Bright lightning in the function, big cities, etc. causes light pollution. Light pollution is also known as photo-pollution, it is the presence of anthropogenic light in the night environment. Light pollution occurs at night and is obtrusive, inappropriate or excessive artificial light. Component of light pollution are: Urban sky glow which is the brightening of the night sky over inhabited areas; Light trespass, when light falls where it is not intended or not to fall, visual discomfort caused by excessive brightness and high levels can decrease visibility; light sources which are bright and excessive. These light sources can be found in  urban areas.
It is the brightening of the night sky and it diminishes the view of stars and planets.

      Sources

  • Large cities
  • Billboards and advertising
  • Night time sporting events and other night time entertainment

     Effects

  • Degrade the quality of life
  • Discomfort in the eyes

    Remedies

  • Work with your neighbours and local government to keep the light on the ground and the skies natural
  • Use light emitting diodes (LED)
  • Use only the light you need to get the job done

Health Effects of Unwanted light ๐Ÿ’ก 

Generally the visible light do not have an enormous effects on human health, but when its intensity increases it corrodes the retina of the eye.  Some people feel eye dryness due to using modern smart phones as their eyes are more exposed to the high intensity light over long time. Unfortunately there is no permanent cure for dry eyes.  
The other lights like UV, Infrared, Gama etc.  have negative impact on body and can be seen easily. 
Comment what are you thinking about it.. ..! 

Saturday

Virus v/s Bacteria | who is more powerful !


Virus and Bacteria both are the biotic components of our ecosystem and they are biologically very important as like any other component in our environment
Before starting the answer One fact I must clear that Bacteria's are most abundant than viruses. Not all bacteria are dangerous for us but all viruses are dangerous for us.

As far as we all know that bacteria have a complete cell and perform all it's metabolic activities and do much more by itself but viruses can't do itself. Viruses need a host to complete their life cycle. 
Viruses are much more chronic to us because they have only a set of DNA/RNA as their genetic material which they insert in host's genome to complete their life cycle. Once the viral genome inserted in host's genome then it becomes difficult to eradicate the effects of virus and it's gene, but thanks to modern genetic engineering we can control, knock out,  and decrease the effects of particular genes at some extent. 
When we talk about bacteria's they are most harmfull but depends on their population and antigenic secretions. When they present in small amount their antigens are also in less and are controlled by antibiotics but in larger amount they are hard to control. 
Bacterial infection is also chronic, some bacteria's have impact on our primary immune defences some have impact on our nerve system. When its impact is more on our body we are unable to respond against it and it becomes dangerous for us.  Certain studies found that bacteria become antibiotic resistance if exposed over long time e.g: Salmonellae,  Helicobector pylori, Enterobacteriacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus etc.
While in case of viruses they gain control on our genes and every time translation occurs it affects. Newly discovered Retro viruses are very dangerous and almost impossible to cure because they do reverse transcription to form their DNA inside the host and after that weakens the host immune system, due to which other diseases arise and person dies. In the case of HIV
We can see in our history viruses have larger effects on eradicating a huge population e.g: Plague,  Enterovirus, Rabbies,  Ebola etc. 

Conclusion 
At last i concluded that viruses are more dangerous than any bacteria if they entered in host's cell and inserted their genomes, here i exclude some viruses that are very much poor in pathogenecity like influenza virus.  But bacteria are too dangerous although we have antibiotics against them but they ate limited due to their adaptation to antibiotic resistance ability.  
For full reference and details visit this page Better Health,Australia

For any query ๐Ÿ”ค feel free to ask us...... ..........we are here to explain..........!! Comment your views Viruses or Bacteria what do you think?

Wednesday

Noise Pollution

  
  The normal range of hearing is 20Hz to 20KHz.  When we talk in decibel unit it is 60db for average speech. The maximum sound of 140db can be hearable by a young man how ever long period of time may harm.  For the children it is 120db beyond that several health effects seen. "Experiments have shown that a healthy young person hears all sound frequencies from approximately 20 to 20,000 hertz." "The maximum range of human hearing includes sound frequencies from about 15 to about 18,000 waves, or cycles, per second." "The general range of hearing for young people is 20 Hz to 20 kHz."


Pollution of Sound                                           

It means unwanted sound that can have deleterious effects on human health and environmental quality. It is commonly generated inside many industrial facilities and some other workplaces, but it also comes from highway, railway, and airplane traffic and from outdoor construction activities. It has become a serious problem for human health. The noisy atmosphere in which we are living is an obstacle in securing good health. Noise pollution and environmental noise are hurting human and other organisms. Noise beyond a limit produces many diseases, such as hypertension, stress, making people vulnerable to forgetfulness, depression and many other serious ailments. Noise is also very dangerous for nature as a whole because it disturbs the tranquillity of all creatures and increases mortality rate in them. Noise pollution is dependent on the loudness and frequency of the sound. In facts, when the sound exceeds its limit, it become fatal for human and other organisms.

The sources of noise pollutions are divided into two categories:

Natural sources

The natural environment is filled with various sounds- thunderstorm, lightning, tornado, cyclone, volcanic eruption, earthquakes, landslides, sounds produced by animals, and rapidly falling water.

Human sources

Rapid industrialization, urbanisation, use of modern means of transport, population growth, and increasing scale of human activities are some of the human factors responsible for noise pollution, Both types of noise pollution, affect sleep, listening ability, physical and mental health.
Low, Soft,  high medium sound waves

Vehicular noise: The modern means of traffic including vehicles such as buses, trucks, scooters, cars etc. pollute the atmosphere. Sound of other automated vehicles and horn, excessive use of loudspeakers for religious purposes also generate jarring noise.
Industrial noise: Industry- businesses, factories and commercial establishments produced a variety of harsh sounds that bump into our ears and disturb our mind. Noise pollution is an integral part of the industrial environment with heavy machines used in the industries; it is on the rise with the increase in industrial urbanisation.
Fireworks: It is another source of pollution. Uncontrolled fireworks in festivals, fairs, or crackers, after victory in matches and elections produce unbearable noise.
Some reasons are also for that inside and outside the house includes car alarms, emergency service siren, machine tools, compressed air horn, equipment, electrical equipment, megaphone etc.

Effect  

  • Physical effects: The physical manifestation of noise pollution is the effect on hearing ability. Repeated exposure to noise may result in temporary or permanent shifting of the hearing threshold of a person depending upon the level and duration of exposure.
  • Physiological effects: Headache bye dilating blood vessels of the brain.
  • Increase in the rate of heart beat.
  • Narrowing of arteries.
  • Pain in the heart.
  • Migration patterns of birds are disturbed, due to which their population is decreasing.

Remedies

  • Automobile servicing 
  • Tree plantation
  • Soundproof homes
  • Factory location

No matter what is it but the noise pollution doesn't have greater impact on ecosystem but it is harmful for humans because humans have limit of hearing 20KHz beyond it harms.
So what is the sound frequency in your near by......... Do you know what to do to prevent yourself from this situation. ... ..................! !!

Saturday

Are DNA/RNA living?


First thing I clear that living organisms are made up of several biochemically active components which together makes it ‘living', but technically we can't say them living individually because together they make a functional biological system which is living.
Here you are considering DNA as a living, its okay but you are referring it also as an organism which is not appropriate or technically correct.
Second thing Nucleus is comprised of DNA and RNA (95% and 5% respectively). So being an nucleus is not likely to be an living organism. If it is then every atom on earth is living organism.

Updating soon.....

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