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Showing posts with label Environment. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Environment. Show all posts


CUT FLOWER CULTIVATION (Floriculture- Gladiolus)

Gladiolus species are well known “bulbous” plants for their attractive and colorful inflorescence. The word “bulbous” grabs a glance because bulbs (the underground corms) are crucial part of the plant. They are popular cut flowers well known among florists because they have an 8-10 day period of long vase life.
Basically it is a winter crop and can be grown for yearlong harvest when cultivated in moderate climatic conditions.
Flower representation
Plants grow from underground corms and leaves are long sword shaped bearing flowers on inflorescence. Fragrant flowers are one sided on spike making them most wanted among bouquet makers. Colors vary from pinkish to red, white, purple to violet, golden yellow to orange. Various cultivars of Gladioli are cultivated basing on market needs. Golden melodies, White prosperity, Silvia, Snow princess, Nova lux, Suchitra are popular cultivars known for their vibrant colors. Each variety has different spike length varying from 75-88 cm with varied number of colored florets on the spike specific for each variety. Number of florets varies ranging from 14-18 on a single inflorescence. 

Field conditions:                                                 

Gladiolus cultivators avoid too harsh or too cold climate for farming. Balancing a mild climate zone is a point of concern. However Gladioli prefer sunlight so farmers avoid shaded region for cultivation. Stable wind flow is mandatory for handful of harvest because disturbing wind patterns can destroy the stems. Gladiolus bearing stems are used in bouquets so injured stems can bring loses on commercial point of view.

Soil preparation and plant material for cultivation:

·     Soil bed is prepared by proper ploughing for good aeration and fertility of soil is maintained well. Organic manure is added to soil prior to planting if the soil is light and sandy. Gladioli are propagated through corms and hence soil beds are made as ridges and well aerated.

·     Winter is ideal season for planting. However if farming is planned in green houses with controlled environment, year round cultivation is possible.
·     Corms are underground storage organs. The swollen stem is enclosed by scale leaves are used as planting material. About 4-5 cm sized disease free high crown corms are selected for flower production rather than flat ones. Smaller corms (cormels or first season corms) are used as planting material for producing flowering corms of next season. Corms are fungicide treated before planting.  
·        Medium sized second season corms are planted for flowering purpose at a depth of 10 cm and 20cm from one another and 30cm spacing between each ridge. Shallow planting favors cormel production but can result in lodging due to winds. Hence farmers take care of wind patterns if they plant for corm multiplication.
·         Watering is done after sprouts have developed. Water logging should be avoided in the field to avoid rotting of corms. 
·       Soil can be hilled up at stem soil interface once the aerial parts reach a length of 20 cm in order to avoid the corm exposure to external atmosphere. Hilling up aids in strength to stem bearing the aerial parts.
·       Weeding should be done manually since stems should not be harmed as they are important for cut flower in bouquets.
·     Manuring with farm yard manure (FYM), and Nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and zinc supplements adds strength to plants. However excessive manure can lead to thin and slenderness among stems. Strengthy stem is essential for successful flowering.    

Harvesting flowers:

·      Spikes are harvested when at least five florets are colorful and it takes around 100-120 days after planting the corm. Harvesting at bud stage when first floret starts to open is better since it avoids Gladioli from being damaged.
·       Harvest is done during morning when there is minimal heat intensity of sun. This reduces water loss and nutrient consumption because of increased respiration rate.
·    Spikes are harvested using sharp knife such that few leaves are retained on plant for complete development of corms and cormels. Harvesters make sharp cuts on spikes since a crushed end can render microbial growth which in turn shortens the vase life. Cut ends are immediately placed into water for retaining freshness.
·       Gladiolus flowers at a rate of only one inflorescence per plant. So after spike is harvested, the farm area is left for corm lifting.
Gladiolus cultivation 

Harvesting corms:

·    After spikes are harvested, leaves on plant turn yellow after one and half month or two inferring corms reached maturity. Farm land needs to be irrigated nearly a week before harvest of corms.
·         Using digger the entire plant is lifted up from soil. Plant is held up and loose soil is shaken off from corms. This avoids bruises and injuries to corms.
·       Lifted corms are hot water treated followed by fungicide treatment. Fungicide treated corms are shade dried for 2 weeks and later cold stored for future use. Corms are retained with husk while storing. Corms have a dormant period of 2-3 months after which they can be used as planting material.

Reaching market:                 

Spike cut ends are immediately placed in water and are retained like that till packing time. Flower spikes are graded based on spike size and floret number and packed. Packing is done as bundles of spikes retained in packing paper and set into cardboard boxes or gunny sacks. Cutting a half inch length of spike from base under water can help in prolonging the vase life.



During past times ornamental plants are part of rich man’s garden. In recent years scenario changed and floriculture gained interest for small scale farmers in growing as entrepreneurs. Floriculture is cultivation of flowers and ornamental crops from seed and grafted stage till they reach market. Cut flowers have a large market in recent days and are definite hosts for celebrations in metro cities. Floriculture market is not only confined to cut flowers but also has its shade in supplying raw materials for cosmetics, perfumes and pharmaceuticals relying on natural products. Apart from traditional loose flowers like Jasmines and Marigold many other cut flowers along with their stems have gained florists interest. Roses, Gladiolus, Lilies, Carnations, Orchids, Tulips, Gerbera are most common cut flowers for bouquets and decorative purposes. 


Roses are one of the oldest and widest cultivated flower species on earth. Apart from using rose oil and rose water in the cosmetics and soaps, the oils are well known members of Ayurvedic healing treatments. Throwing back its utilization in cosmetic industry, roses always stand as topper in decorations as cut flowers, bouquets and garden displays.
Rose flower cultivation,  floriculture-Rose
Rose flower cultivation 

Floribundas, Hybrid Tea, Polyanthus, China roses, Miniature roses, Grandiflora, Ballerina and Bourbon roses are common names known among cultivators. Floribunda and Hybrid Tea are well known for cut flowers usage and are cultivated in a number of attractive colors. Miniature roses are popular for garden designing as pot decorators.

Plant material for cultivation:

Roses are cultivated by asexual means of reproduction. Grafting, budding and stem cutting are used in propagating rose species. Plants are grafted for protecting its vigor and longevity. T-shield budding is best known for cultivation of hybrid roses like Floribunda and hybrid T roses.

1. T- Shield budding:

Small swellings visible on the rose stem are selected such that eyes only bud up but have not grown or elongated. The part containing eye on bud wood (one containing eye) is cut with budding knife and shield piece having bark and eye are separated from interior stem piece. Simultaneously root stock is prepared by removing off side shoots and branches. A small T shaped pocket (a vertical cut) is made on root stock at anterior edge nearly 3 inches away from internode. The shield containing eye is accommodated into this vertical cut on root stock and tied with fiber ensuring enough air reaches the bud. Off shoots and suckers from root stocks should be pinched off otherwise growth of bud may be suppressed and root stock continues its growth. Stem part above bud is cut off after bud insertion for successful budding operation. 
Fall of leaf petiole above to the inserted bud after few days of bud insertion is a sign of successful budding. If leaf petiole has not fallen off properly but still hangs onto stem and bud has turned into black color indicates that budding has failed and need to be repeated.  

2. Cutting:

Stem cuttings are made from healthy and disease free root stocks at length of minimum 12 cm using sharp budding knife at inclined angles. The cut ends are dipped in IA (Indole 3- acetic acid) and BA (6- Benzyl adenine) suspension and planted in moist chambers for efficient and quicker root induction. Roots grow well after 12 to 15 weeks of planting the stem cuts. Then plantlets are manured well for growth of foliage and aerial parts.

Whether budding or grafting?

Each node is potential source of bud in case of T- shield budding. So a single healthy stem can be a source for multiple number of buds. And a single rose twig can produce numerous clones. Stem cuttings on other hand can give a single plantlet. So horticulturist cultivate through budding to produce more and more number of plants if farm is developed from primary stage. Otherwise if the farm is under extension, stem cuttings can serve best use on such small scale needs.
When the root stocks have special disease resistance, insect resistance characters and that need to be implicated in multiple copies, budding is performed. 
Success rate depends on callus formation between bud and root stock. This depends on genetic incompatibility between partners. The area of union should not be too wet and needs well aeration for callus to develop. Success rate is more if selected partners are from same genera, species.  

Farm land Preparation and planting:

  • Roses are hardy plants and produce flowers on year long time scale. So plant beds are prepared keeping in mind that plants live there for repeated seasons. They grow well in loamy soils with adequate amount of organic content. 
  • The farm land needs to be well tilled and left exposed to sun light at least one month prior to planting. Hence the best season for preparing plant bed is during May – June. So once the monsoon starts, plantlets are planted and so conditions are ambient for small plantlets to acclimate for field conditions. Pits are made prior to planting such that plantlet can accommodate well along with earthened soil in order to maintain the microenvironment at root interface.
  • If planted from stem cuttings, main stem is placed in center of pit and soil is covered over the pit.
  • If planted from T-buds the root stock is planted into soil pit such that bud (eye that has elongated on the new root stock) is above the soil and adequate amount of sunlight reaches it. Plantlets are watered well and sunlight should not be too harsh till root system develops. Field should be drained well to avoid water logging for newly developed roots.
  • Post planting the soil beds need to be well irrigated with salt free water. Plants need perfect sunlight and humidity needs to be well maintained in green houses.
  • Good amount of sunlight with duration of minimum 6 hours is necessary for healthy vegetative growth.

Flowering and farm maintenance:

Pruning is removing the dead and diseased ends. In farms that are cultivating from repeated seasons pruning is a necessary step before buds start to grow. Pruning is performed when the plants are nearing dormant stage. All the suckers arising from root stocks, criss-cross tangled shoots, dry and less vigorous stems are lost in this step. This ensures breaking dormancy and buds initiate on fresh and strong stems. Using cutters, old dead ends are cut at 45 degree angle into a clean sharp cut. Hybrid teas and floribundas flower nearly after 45 days of pruning.

Nitrogen and Potassium are essential for healthy stem growth and flower bud development. Deficiency of nitrogen can lead to small sized leaves and weaker stems. Phosphorous ensures healthy root growth and stimulates flowering. It can be provided as phosphoric acid or super phosphate. Foliar spray of micronutrients with magnesium and borax supplements ensures good quality flowers.  

Few varieties produce multiple buds (main bud accompanied by small side buds) below the center main bud. Side buds are disbudded at earlier stages of development in order to avoid wound scars for cut flowers. Disbudding ensures farmers with stem ending in a single large and attractive bud that attains profit in market.

Roses demand bigger water needs and field needs to be well irrigated with salt free water after pruning for healthy foliage development. Farmers must ensure that water do not log the root system otherwise roots face aeration issues. Weeding needs to be performed on interval basis manually.

Harvest and post harvest measures:

Flowers are harvested in a tight bud stage, just after petals have gained full color and start unfolding. This is performed during mornings or evenings using sharp blades and cut stem ends are placed in water immediately for prolonged freshness. Flowers are stored at 2-4°C cold storage and segregated based on stem length. Grade 1 flowers with a stem length 45 cm and grade 2 flowers having 30-35 cm are packed separately. 10-12 flowers per bunch are generally packed in corrugated card board boxes in-lined with news paper or tissue paper. 

Trade and profit:

Roses have a good market in National and International market. As a bottom line good quality flowers ensure handful profit for cultivator. On an average cut flowers are sold at Rs 10 per piece and loose flowers at Rs 2000 per kilogram. Hybrid Tea yields around 80 flowers per plant per year and Floribunda yields 90 flowers per plant per year. Roses being perennial plants draw a handsome amount of profit to the cultivator.


Traditional Water Purification Techniques

Water pollution is the major problem which is being faced by every country and due to water pollution, it is not healthy to drink and doing any household activity.

Traditional Water purification techniques

Traditional purification techniques of water now being shifted to Modern purification techniques
  • Boiling
  • Sunlight Exposure
  • Chlorination
  • Flocculation
  • Filtration-Straining
  • Three-Pot Treatment


Pollution scenario in India

With rapid increase in population, the levels of pollution and their sources also increased alarmingly. WHO states that India's pollution rate is very much high in past decades, this is due to over use of pollutants knowing it effects.

Which pollution is most affecting India?

All the pollution Air, Water,  and Land are interconnected to each other in a disciplinary way that one have impact on others. 
But based on the situations Air pollution is the leading cause of the several Health problems in India. This is due to Rapid increase in the industries, who do not follow GMP (Good manufacturing Practices). After Industries the vehicles and refrigerators responsible for air pollution.
The major pollutants are released by these two components. 
Air pollution in major cities Delhi,  Pune,  Jaipur
Scenario of Pollution in Major Indian Cities

Top Polluted Cities In India of 2018 

So in which city you are and How much it is polluted....... Rank your city based on Air quality....! 


Cosmic Radiations : will we survive or not!

Have you ever wondered why there is no life on other planets or humans can't go outside earth without space suit if they are provided with oxygen supply only.  The space suit protect them from cosmic radiations. Here it is..... 

Earth's Magnetic Field 

On earth there is a strong magnetic field which repels the electromagnetic radiations coming from the sun or any object. The Earth's magnetic field is due to the liquid metals present in the core in molten state. 

Advantage for us! 

If human body or any living system is exposed in high electromagnetic radiation they get mutated, even in low field over long time. Earth's magnetic poles repels those fields and don't allow them to expose in our environment. 

What If Earth have no Magnetic field 

According to the astro-science it is believed that if some how the core of any planet is cooled down or destroyed the planet is no more habitable.  And in the case of Earth if it's magnetic field is absent or partially present then we will no longer on Earth. Our DNA is not enough strong to repair it as the rate of mutations start occuring in the presence of electromagnetic radiation. 

Solar Storm 

It is the term used to indicate the electromagnetic radiation coming from sun,  if these radiations coming at higher rates or any eruption occurs at the surface of sun then Solar Storms occur.  Our strong magnetic field repels it at a limited extent depends on the distance. In future if the Resources are not stored then may be these radiations tends to bombard on earth. 

Magnetic eruption from sun to our solar system
Credit: NASA


Pollution | A Threat to Environment

                                                                               Environment and Pollution 

No doubt humans are eradicating and disturbing the equilibrium of the environment. Our environment have all the necessary things which a living organism required, but what we are doing we are exhausting and making unavailable for others if not then for our future generations. Pollution is the main reason behind this because more over the pollution lesser is the growth of environment ( here I say 'Ecosystem').
Environmental Pollution
Relationships between the pollution with each other


Pollution means presence of anything in the system which is not naturally found in that or presence in unproportionate manner. It is the process of making the environment land water and air dirty by adding harmful substance to it which causes imbalance in the environment.
Environmental pollution is a serious problem of the industrialized societies. The industrial development & the green revolution have adversely affected the environment. Day by day pollution has been increasing & imbalance has threatened the very survival of all forms of life. It is threat to the whole world. People have converted the life supporting system of the entire living world into their own resources and have vastly disturbed the natural ecological balance. It is defined as the unfavourable alteration of our surroundings. In India allay the source of water lie rivers lakes ponds and wells have been polluted and are unfit for drinking. As a result of the increased use of fertilizers, the rivers seas and oceans have become contaminated with harmful pollutants. Pollution is a product of people activities which directly or indirectly  responsible for the changes in environment. All changes in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of land, air, or water than harm human life and other living things. Population explosion, rapid industrialisation deforestation unplanned urbanization scientific and technological advancement. 
Pollution occurs in different forms like air, water, soil, radioactive, noise, heat, light. All forms of pollution have two sources of matter like point and non-point sources. The point sources are easy to find while the non-point sources are hard to find and hard to control. 


Different types of pollutions occur and effect on people and the environment as a whole.

1) Air pollution

It refers to the contamination of atmospheric air due to presence of some substance and gases which have poisonous effect. Day by day the fresh air of our environment is getting polluted due to mixing of biological molecules and some other harmful material. Such polluted air is causing health problems.

2) Water pollution

Fresh water is the most important sources of life on the earth. Any living thing may survive without food for days however it is impossible to imagine life without water and oxygen. The ever-increasing human population enhances the demand of water for purpose like drinking, washing, performing industrial processes, irrigation crops, arranging swimming pools and others water-sports centre. Water pollution is done by the people of all over the world because of increasing demand and competition of luxuries life. 

3) Soil pollution

It occurs due to incorporation of unwanted chemicals in the soil due to human activities. Use of insecticides and pesticides absorbs the nitrogen compounds from the soil making it unfit for plants to drive nutrition from. Soil pollution refers to the mixing of human made chemicals like industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals, and other harmful disposal of wastes from houses, factories, etc. into the natural soil which causes land degradation and makes it unfit for the cropping.

4) Radioactive pollution

It is highly dangerous when it occurs. It can occur dur to nuclear plant malfunctions, improper nuclear waste disposal, accidents, etc. It can cause cancer, infertility, blindness, defects at the time of birth; can sterile soil and affect air and water. Radioactivity is radioactive decay or emission of particles (neuron, proton or heavier particles) from an atom or nucleus. Recently radioactive elements are also used in research and medicine. These pollutants are directly linked to nuclear energy.

5) Noise pollution

The unwanted sound that can have deleterious effects on human health and environmental quality. It is commonly generated inside many industrial facilities and some other workplaces, but it also comes from highway, railway, and airplane traffic and from outdoor construction activities. It has become a serious problem for human health. The noisy atmosphere in which we are living is an obstacle in securing good health. 

6) Thermal pollution

Thermal pollution is the degradation of water quality by any process that changes ambient water temperature. Thermal pollution is usually associated with increases of water temperature in a stream, lake or ocean due to the discharge of heated water from industrial processes, such as the generation of electricity. Increase in ambient water temperature also occur in streams where shading vegetation along the banks is removed or where sediments have made the water more turbid. It is due to excess heat in the environment creating unwanted changes over long time periods; due to huge number of industrial plants, deforestation and air pollution.

7) Light pollution    

It occurs due to prominent excess illumination of an area. It is largely visible in big cities, on bill boards, in sports or entertainment events at the night. In residential areas the lives of the inhabitants are greatly affected by this. It also affects the astronomical observations and activities by making the stars almost invisible. Bright lightning in the function, big cities, etc. causes light pollution. Light pollution is also known as photopollution, it is the presence of anthropogenic light in the night environment. Light pollution occurs at night and is obtrusive, inappropriate or excessive artificial light.


Biotic v/s Abiotic

Have you heard these two terms yet, in environmental science these two words plays vital role and they have unique meaning. Whenever we talk about ecosystem we must include Biotic and Abiotic.  Why? How? Read carefully! !


The living biomass/component of ecosystem is commonly referred as Biotic.  The biotic components interact directly with other living organisms in the ecosystem. Mostly our ecosystem is balanced by the biotic components. If the living organisms are replaced by non-living than the ecosystem have no meaning.
Biotic comprises of : fungi,  bacteria,  plants, and all other living species.
Performing chemistry experiments

Effects of Biotic factors:-

They affect directly or indirectly to living species within an environment. The biotic factors include disease, parasitism and predation. The smaller organisms spread disease by finding higher species as host some become parasite and some harmful.  While the higher species kill the smaller ones and feeds on them.  All these interaction you will find in food chain of ecosystem.


The non living matter present in the ecosystem is all Abiotic components. They don't play any role in biomass but they influence them most. They act like environmental factors on the biotic components. However Biotic and Abiotic are interdependet on each other.  
Abiotic comprises of : water,  soil,  pH,  temperature, sun light,  and air etc. 

Effects of Abiotic factors:-

Abiotic factors affects the ability of the species to survive and reproduce  in the environment. Some times these factors are favorable and some time not. Abiotic factors limit the growth of weak organisms, those who have ability to pass in harsh environmental conditions can survive this limits and controls thier population within the environment.

Interaction between Biotic and Abiotic

The significance of Biotic and Abiotic factors comes with their interactions with each other. For an healthy ecosystem all the interactions need to be in a place. 
A common example of abiotic interaction in plants. Water, sunlight and carbon dioxide are necessary for plants to grow. The biotic interaction is that plants use water, sunlight and carbon dioxide to create their own nourishment through a process called photosynthesis. On a larger scale, abiotic interactions refer to patterns such as climate and seasonality. Factors such as temperature, humidity and the presence or absence of seasons affect the ecosystem. For instance, some ecosystems experience cold winters with a lot of snow. An animal such as a fox within this ecosystem adapts to these abiotic factors by growing a thick, white-colored coat in the winter. Decomposers such as bacteria and fungi are examples of biotic interactions on such a scale. Decomposers function by breaking down dead organisms. This process returns the basic components of the organisms to the soil, allowing them to be reused within that ecosystem.
Thus the interactions of the biotic and abiotic factors makes a healthy and growing ecosystem.


Biological Role of Heavy Water

Examining of water and its connection with its natural structure uncovers an energizing and promising region of concentrates that may lead us far in comprehension of typical and neurotic procedures of life. In reality, the structure of water proposes another point of view on life itself. As of not long ago water was viewed as a pretty much nonpartisan medium filling the space between the basic components of the cell. «Water is a fundamental piece of the living being, and not only its environment». In such a way the part of water is portrayed by surely understood biophysicist Albert Szent-Györgyi in his book «Bioenergetics». We will center around a property of water, which has not yet been connected extraordinary significance. It will be an issue of natural part of that little measure of overwhelming water which is contained in normal water and, in this manner, in creatures. Most by far of standard water atoms is H2O with polluting influence of HDO particles. Honest to goodness substantial water has atoms of a kind of D2O (the distinction in the oxygen isotopes is ignored in all cases). At the point when substantial water was found (1932), the investigation of its impact on organic articles when utilized as a part of high fixations started. Thought substantial water, in which all hydrogen molecules are supplanted by deuterium, contrasts from normal water in physical properties. In normal water the nearness of a little sum (0,0149%) of overwhelming water basically does not influence its physical properties. Mixes with typical and substantial hydrogen likewise contrast from each other in compound properties. Supplanting of normal hydrogen by substantial one essentially prompts decreasing of the rate of compound responses (by 3-10 times). Normally, the substitution of a noteworthy piece of the hydrogen particles with deuterium will prompt a log jam in numerous synthetic responses that decide complex natural procedures in cells, tissues and body all in all.
Be that as it may, it is as of now conceivable to make a conclusion that the most widely recognized physical and natural contemplations show that a little change in convergence of overwhelming water in life form (even near its "typical" esteem) can give an incredible organic impact. In reality, on the off chance that we take a gander at a recipe of any natural particle, the eye gets the plenitude of hydrogen iotas. Hydrogen particle as the lightest, the most deft and effectively changed over into H+ particle or shaping a Goodness particle together with an oxygen molecule assumes an extremely uncommon part in every single biochemical process in living beings. The course of natural procedures is unavoidably connected with such physical marvels as dissemination through permeable layers, isotope trade responses and so forth., which cause an isolating isotope impact, and because of it the proportion between the quantity of H and D molecules in various parts of the body will be not quite the same as the normal for the body. It is referred to that as time passes by overwhelming water amasses in the body. This amassing in particular organs may likewise go speedier than the normal for the body because of the previously mentioned physical causes. What's more, very embellishments can make a substitution of deuterium particles hydrogen iotas in the atoms of DNA. Substitution in the DNA, for instance, 10-25% of deuterium particles by hydrogen iotas won't cause a calamity, obviously (just around 0.015% of the hydrogen particles are deuterium), since it won't change the general arrangement of advancement of the living being encoded in DNA (substantial hydrogen is still hydrogen), yet this change could influence the pace of development of new DNA atoms and along these lines the entire existence of a life form. These presumptions about the conceivable component of activity of little changes in the grouping of overwhelming water opens the field for look into in the broadest sense, starting with general natural inquiries and completion with issues of gerontology and geriatrics. Encounters with low deuterium wate are exceptionally available. Nature gives us such water in incredible sums – this is as a matter of first importance the snow water.Snow water (arranged with specific insurances) contrasted and regular stream water or rain water contains not 0.0149% of overwhelming water, but rather roughly 1/4 less (i.e. around 0,012%). Water acquired from ice is comparable in organization to the snow water. At the point when ice liquefies, the primary bunch of liquefy water is deuterium-drained, however later bits will way to deal with common stream water in the substance of substantial water. For maintainable outcomes it is conceivable to suggest just snow water.



It is also known as deuterium oxide (D2O). It is form of water that contains large amount of hydrogen isotope deuterium (heavy hydrogen). Deuterium differs from hydrogen which is usually found in water. Heavy water may be deuterium protium oxide (DHO) or deuterium oxide (D2O). The presence of deuterium increase mass of water and gives different chemical and physical property compared to normal water.
Heavy water is used in certain types of nuclear reactors, where it acts as a neutron moderator to slow down neutrons. It also used in nuclear magnetic resonance, organic chemistry, fourier transform spectroscopy, neutron moderator, neutrino detector, tritium production and metabolic rate testing in physiology and biology.


Biofuels an introduction

Since  the  energy  crises  of  the  1970s,  many  countries  have  utilized  biomass  as  a  fuel  source  to expand  the  development  of  its  domestic  and  renewable  energy  initiatives  and  reduce  the environmental  and  ecological  impact  of  energy  production.    Bioenergy  accounts  for  almost  35% of  primary  energy  consumed  in  developing  countries,  raising  its  contribution  in  the  world  to 14%.                          The  most  important  biomass  energy  sources  are  wood  and  wood  wastes,  agricultural  crops  and  its waste  byproducts,  municipal  solid  waste  (MSW),  animal  wastes,  waste  from  food  processing,  and aquatic  plants  and  algae.  The  majority  of  biomass  energy  is  produced  from  wood  and  wood  wastes (64%),  followed  by  MSW  (24%),  agricultural  waste  (5%),  and  landfill  gas  (5%).    In  the industrialized  countries,  the  main  biomass  processes  are  expected  to  be  direct  combustion  of residues  and  wastes  for  electricity  generation,  bio-ethanol  and  biodiesel  as  liquid  fuels,  and combined heat  and power (CHP) production from  energy crop. For  a  given  biofuel  feedstock  several  issues  require  careful  analysis  : 
(1)  chemical  composition  of the  biomass,  
(2)  cultivation  practices,
(3)  availability  of  land  and  land  use  practices, 
(4)  use  of resources, 
(5)  energy  balance, 
(6)  emission  of  greenhouse  gases,  acidifying  gases  and  ozone depletion  gases,  
(7)  absorption  of  minerals  to  water  and  soil,  
(8)  injection  of  pesticides,  
(9)  soil erosion,  
(10)  contribution  to  biodiversity  and  landscape  value  losses, 
(11)  farm-gate  price  of  the biomass,  
(12)  logistic  cost  (transport  and  storage  of  the  biomass),  
(13)  direct  economic  value  of the  feedstock  taking  into  account  the  co-products, 
(14)  creation  or  maintain  of  employment,  
(15) water requirements  and water availability.
A  biofuel  is  a  fuel  that  immediately  derived  from  living  matter.  It  is  produced  through  modern biological  processes,  such  as  agriculture  and  anaerobic  digestion.  Biofuels  can  be  derived  directly from  plants,  or  indirectly  from  agricultural,  commercial,  domestic,  and/or  industrial  wastes. Renewable  biofuels  generally  involve  contemporary  carbon  fixation,  such  as  those  that  occur  in plants  or  microalgae  through  the  process  of  photosynthesis.  Other  renewable  biofuels  are  made through  the  use  or  conversion  of  biomass.  This  biomass  can  be  converted  to  convenient  energy containing substances  in three  different  ways: 
a.  Thermal  conversion,  
b.  Chemical  conversion, 
c.  Biochemical  conversion.   This  biomass  conversion  can  result  in  fuel  in  solid,  liquid,  or  gas  form.  This  new  biomass  can  also be  used directly for biofuels. Bioethanol  is  an  alcohol  made  by  fermentation,  mostly  from  carbohydrates  produced  in  sugar  or starch  crops  such  as  corn,  sugarcane,  or  sweet  sorghum.  Cellulosic  biomass,  derived  from  nonfood  sources,  such  as  trees  and  grasses,  is  also  being  developed  as  a  feedstock  for  ethanol production.  Ethanol  can  be  used  as  a  fuel  for  vehicles  in  its  pure  form,  but  it  is  usually  used  as  a gasoline  additive  to  increase  octane  and  improve  vehicle  emissions.  Bioethanol  is  widely  used  in the  USA  and in Brazil.   Biodiesel  can  be  used  as  a  fuel  for  vehicles  in  its  pure  form,  but  it  is  usually  used  as  a  diesel additive  to  reduce  levels  of  particulates,  carbon  monoxide,  and  hydrocarbons  from  diesel-powered vehicles.  Biodiesel  is  produced  from  oils  or  fats  using  transesterification  and  is  the  most  common biofuel  in Europe. There  are  various  social,  economic,  environmental  and  technical  issues  relating  to  biofuels production  and  use,  which  have  been  published  in  the  popular  media  and  scientific  journals.  These include:  the  effect  of  moderating  oil  prices,  the  "food  vs  fuel"  debate,  poverty  reduction  potential, carbon  emissions  levels,  sustainable  biofuel  production,  deforestation  and  soil  erosion,  loss  of biodiversity,  impact  on  water  resources,  rural  social  exclusion  and  injustice,  shantytown  migration, rural  unskilled unemployment, and nitrogen dioxide  (NO2) emissions.
Shivani kumari, Amity University 


BIO-TOILETS an Introduction

Bio-toilets are based on bio-digester technology which was initially developed by Defence research &Development organization (DRDO) for defence personnel. The enterprise is pioneering this, in integrated approaches and taking this effective  and  innovative Sanitation  solution  to  the  civil population with varying applications.
It is developed by DRDO and called DRDO bacteria that converts human excretory waste into water and gas .Water is subjected to chlorination and then it is discharged outside. It has a very effective impact on environment and environmental-friendly track that creates healthy working condition for railway tracks.There are many issues related to the bio-toilets which pertain to behavior of the passengers.Passengers dispose newspapers,plastic bottles,bags that clog toilets.
India is a place that is known for decent variety where one can witness space rockets conveying correspondence satellites into space and in the meantime manual cleaning of human excreta by foragers. As indicated by the information shared by NSSO (National Sample Survey Office) in December 2013, 59.4 level of provincial India poop in the open. According to the twelfth five year design, 50 percent of the towns must accomplish ODF (open crap free) status by 2017 and 100 rate by 2022. In any case, this target appears to be very hard to accomplish in coming 8 years, in light of the fact that the greater part of the towns of India are now confronting genuine medical issues because of heaps of excreta. Tal ruler particularly about the state of towns in Jharkhand, individuals utilize polythene sheets hung on four bamboo adheres as cover to poo. From a study led by MDWS (Ministry Of Drinking Water and Sanitation), just 40 percent homes in rustic India have toilets while whatever is left of the populace is compelled to pick open poop. This unhygienic practice frequently prompts spreading of irresistible infections, and builds ailment and mortality among the most powerless gathering i.e., youngsters.
All things considered, 113 million provincial family units are living without toilets. To take care of this demand, India needs to build 15.3 million toilets for each year. Be that as it may, the present rate at which the toilets are getting built is just 4 million every year. It implies that aggregate sani tation will get over by 2044 i.e., 20 years more than due date. Along these lines, it is obviously noticeable that there is an immense prerequisite of toilets in the nation which can't be satisfied by recently ebb and flow sorts of toilets which covers pour-flush, water storage room (36.4 %), and pit restroom (9.4%) toilets and others (1.1 %) according to 2011 statistics of India.
Here comes the part of bio-toilets, which are anything but difficult to introduce and financially savvy, and offer natural inviting answer for practical human excreta administration. Bio-toilets not just play out the general capacity of a can, yet in addition change over human excreta into compost which can be utilized as natural manure. This manure is discovered rich in Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P) And Potassiu m (K), and goes about as a dirt conditioner. A bio-can chiefly comprises of a latrine bowl, fertilizing the soil reactor, ventilation, and blending instrument (Figure-I). In the bio-can, defecation pee is blended with sawdust in a reactor chamber and this blend is disintegrated by oxygen consuming microscopic organisms bringing about arrangement of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O). The water is vanished by the compound warmth which discharges in the process disintegration of natural materials. In the interim, mineralized results of natural waste, for example, Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P) And Potassium (K) stayed in the saw clean. After the bio-can is utilized for a half year, the lingering sawdust is gathered and can be utilized for natural cultivating and biogas era.
The primary rule of bio-toilets is that is a bacteriological framework for discarding human waste. In the treatment tank the human waste and water blend enters and artical " microscopic organisms booster"(micro culture) grow more number of microbes which is persistently separated the strong human waste into the fluid which deplete with water, after appropriate synthetic treatment(CI) to slaughter the microorganisms in the water. The Bacteria free water is depleted to the track bed in the middle of Rails, the different gases(primary CO)developed while concoction response in a depleted created to the tank vents.
Bio-toilet system depend upon the human excretory waste disposal mechanism which reduces solid human waste to biogas like methane and pure water with the help of anaerobic bacteria inoculum . The human waste is treated in a digester tank using specific high graded bacteria.This technology was initially developed by Defence research &Development organization (DRDO) for defence personnel. Water is undergo to chlorination and then discharged into environment . This effect will be clear and environmental -friendly spaces and specially railway tracks in India.
In that project are two doors in tank, the one input door and second exit door. The input door is on top of the tank and exit door is assembling inside the tank. The doors open and close by using pneumatic cylinder. Pneumatic cylinder is control by using RPM controller, Proximity sensor, and Compressed air tank.  So, whole system is controlled with train speed. If the train speeds exceed 30 km/h then exit door will open and total waste depositor drop in tracks and input door is close. Input door is open when train is under 30 km/h speed.
Corresponding author.                         SHREYA TYAGI, AMITY UNIVERSITY  


Pharmaceuticals Industries are using toxic chemicals and extra difficult process which produces comparatively a large amount harmful substance. These harmful substances cause bad impact on surroundings and nature. The approach of Green chemistry provides environmentally friendly way to replace harmful solvents and technologies, so prevent pollution. Green Chemistry concept The green chemistry has emerged as research program in the US which arises from collaborative efforts of university unit, self-governing research crowed, business, technical community and legislative agencies, to decreasing pollution. The new approach introduces in green chemistry synthesis, dealing out and relevance of chemical material in such a way as to minimize the risk to environment and health of human. This advanced access is as well called:
1. Eco-friendly chemistry

2. Clean chemistry
3. Atom wealth
4. Benign design chemistry
Global ecofriendly ideas to conserve and protect nature

Green chemistry involves 12 set of values projected by Anastas and Warner. The green chemistry gives directions to expert chemists to execute new substance, modern production and modern scientific processes.The main idea to protect the environment green chemistry is generated from first principle. Whereas 11 principles are paying attention to make environment eco-friendly.


Green science is an exceedingly compelling way to deal with contamination aversion as it applies creative logical answers for certifiable natural circumstances. The accompanying 12 standards of Green Chemistry give an approach to scientific experts to execute green chemistry.

(a)Waste Control - It is perfect to forestall squander than to take care of waste after it has been produced.

(b) Atom effectiveness- Engineered planning must intended to enhance the all supplies utilized as element of procedure into product.
 (c) Application of non- destructive of reagents-This incorporates the utilization of reagents and manufactured strategies that decreases the hazard and delivers eco-accommodating items that has no awful effect on human and atmosphere.
(d) Safer Chemicals Scheming-Chemicals and reagents should accomplish their coveted ability while limiting their harmfulness.
(e) Safer Solvents and Auxiliaries -Broadly utilized solvents in unions are lethal and unstable – liquor, benzene (known cancercausing), CCl4, CHCl3, perchloroethylene, CH2Cl2. These have now been supplanted by more secure green solvents.
(f) Design for Energy Efficiency-Vitality requirements of synthetic procedures must perceive for their ecological and monetary effects and should to be limited.
(g) Use of Renewable Feed stocks-It is wanted to use crude materials and feedstock that are sustainable, however in fact and monetarily practicable. Referring to the case of sustainable feedstock which incorporate agrarian items and exhausting feedstock incorporate crude supplies that are extracted from non-renewable energy sources (oil, gaseous petrol or coal).
(h) Shorter combinations -Superfluous derivatization should be limited or managed a strategic space if possible and such strides require additional reagents and can produce squander.
(i) Use of Catalytic instead of Stoichiometric reagents -Impetuses are utilized as a part of little sums and can complete a solitary response commonly as are desirable over stoichiometric reagents, which are utilized as a part of overabundance and work. This will improve the selectivity, lessen the temperature of a change, diminish waste produced by reagent and conceivably keep away from undesirable side responses prompting a spotless innovation
(j) Design for dreadful conditions -Compound items ought to be planned so that toward the finish of their capacity they separate into harmless corruption items and don't hold on in nature.
(k)Techniques to control pollution -Different techniques require developing for actual-time, in-process monitoring and control formation of hazardous substances.
(l) Use of Safer Chemicals and Process -Substances and the form of a substance used in a chemical process should be chosen so as to minimize the potential of chemical accidents, including releases, explosions, and fires.


Eco-Friendly Dry clean-up of Clothes -Perchloroethylene (PERC) used for dry cleaning pollutes water resource and cancer-causing agent. To solve this problem Joseph De Simons, Timothy Romark, and James synthesized Micell which is made up of liquid CO2 and a surfactant for cleaning garments. Cleaning machines have now been produced utilizing this procedure. Micell Technology has likewise developed a metal cleaning framework that utilizations CO2 and a surfactant accordingly dispensing with the need of halogenated solvents.
2.2 Solution to Turn Turbid Water Clear -Tamarind seed kernel powder, discarded as agriculture waste, is a good agent to create municipal and industrial waste water clear. the current follow is to use Al-salt to treat such water. it's been found that alum will increasepoisonous ions in treated water and will cause diseases like Alzheimer’s. On the opposite hand kernel powder is not- poisonous and is perishable and price effective. For the study, four flocculants specifically tamarind seed kernel powder, mixture of the powder and starch, starch ad alum were used. Flocculants with slurries were ready by combining measured quantity of clay and water.The result showed aggregation of the powder and suspended particles were a lot of porous and allowed water to exudate and become compact a lot of simply and shaped larger volume of clear water. Starch flocks on the opposite hand were found to be light-weight weight and fewer porous and thus didn’t enable water to taste it simply. The study establishes the powder’s potential as associate degree economic flocculants with performance shut more matured flocculants like K2SO4Al2(SO4)3.24H2O (potash alum).

2.3 Solar Array -One of the best known examples of green technology would be the solar cell. A solar cell directly converts the energy in light into electrical energy through the process of photovoltaics. Generating electricity from solar energy means less consumption of fossil fuels, reducing pollution and greenhouse gas emissions.

2.4 Reusable Water Bottle -Another simple invention that can be considered green is the reusable water bottle. Drinking lots of water is healthy. Reducing plastic waste is great for the environment. Hence, trendy reusable water bottles that you can refill yourself are health-promoting, eco-friendly, and green.
2.5 Solar Water Heater -Installing a solar water heater can be a great way to cut down on energy costs at a much lower initial expense. The costs associated with the installation of a solar water heater are actually recouped much faster than the costs associated with photovoltaic technology for power generation. This is due to the increased efficiency of solar water heating systems, as well as their reduced expense when compared to the large solar array required for powering a home.
2.6 Wind Generator -The costs of a home wind generator vary greatly. Some have built their own wind generators with off-the-shelf parts from their local hardware stores. Others have purchased kits or paid for professional installation to supplement the power purchased from their local electrical grid. The power production capability of a home wind generator varies about as much as the initial expense. Many kit based generators will produce only enough power to offset 10-15% of your Home energy costs.

 2.7 Rainwater Harvesting System -Rain collector systems are extremely simple mechanical systems that connect to a gutter system or other rooftop water collection network and store rain water in a barrel or cistern for later non-potable use (like watering plants, flushing toilets, and irrigation). These systems are extremely inexpensive.
 2.8 Insulation of House -Based on EPA estimates, 10% of household energy usage a year is due to energy loss from poor insulation. We will get an excellent return on investment from sealing our home to prevent energy escape.
 2.9 Building with Green Technology -Green buildings use a variety of environmentally friendly techniques to reduce their impact on the environment. Reclaimed materials, passive solar design, natural ventilation and green roofing technology can allow builders to produce a structure with a considerably smaller carbon footprint than normal construction. These techniques not only benefit the environment, but they can produce economically attractive buildings that are healthier for the occupants as well. The chief benefit of building green is reducing a building’s impact on the environment. Using green building techniques can also reduce the costs associated with construction and operation of a building. Green ventilation techniques involve open spaces and natural airflow, reducing the need for traditional air conditioning and preventing many of these problems.


3.1 Oxidation chemical agent and contact action -Several of the oxidization reagents and catalysts are comprised of nephrotoxic substances like significant metals. Since these substances were typically employed in very massive volumes needed to convert numerous pounds of petrochemicals, there was a major inheritance of those metals being discharged to the setting and having substantial negative impact on human health and setting. It may be modified by the utilization of benign substances.

 3.2 Biometric multifunctional reagents -Whereas artificial contact action and reagents for the foremost half have targeted on concluding one distinct transformation. The manipulations could embrace activation, conformational changes, and one or many actual transformations and derivitizations.
3.3 Combinatorial inexperienced chemistry -The chemistry of having the ability to create massive numbers of chemical compounds chop-chop on a little scale exploitation reaction matrices.The instance is lead that incorporates a massive no of derivatives. This chemistry has enabled massive no of gear to be created and their properties assessed while not the magnitude of the consequences of waste disposal.
3.4 Energy focus -The environmental impact of energy usage square measure profound however haven't been as visible and as direct as a number of the hazards that haven't been expose by materials employed in manufacture, use and disposal of chemicals. The advantage of contact action is dramatic in chemical science. there's a requirement to style substances and materials that square measure effective, economical and cheap at the capture, storage and transportation.
3.5 Proliferation of solvent less reactions -One in every of the 'solvent alternatives' that's being: it's one in every of the solvent alternatives that's being developed in inexperienced chemistry is that of solvent less reaction system. The carrying of producing method in solvent-less condition utilizes some non-traditional conditions. This helps in development of product isolation, separation and purification that may be solventless yet so as to maximise.
3.6 Supramolecular chemistry -Analysis is presently current within the space of supramolecular chemistry to generate reactions which may proceed in the solid phase without use of solvents. The cyclic addition of trans-1,2- bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene is directed by phenol within the solid state. This solid-state reaction take within the presence of ultraviolet {light|ultraviolet illumination|UV|actinic radiation|actinic ray} light in 100 percent yield.