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Showing posts with label AGRICULTURE. Show all posts
Showing posts with label AGRICULTURE. Show all posts

Thursday

AN OVERVIEW OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

Biotechnology deals with the field of bio-sciences with technology to generate efficient and better biological assays and applications. In biotechnology living systems are introduced or modified with the high-throughput techniques to amplify the results and lowering the cost and time. 
For example, Modern breads and cheese are manufactured by using microbes which are genetically modified and targeted for specific biological pathways to give suitable or desired products. Modern biotechnology is totally different from the conventional biotechnology. In conventional biotechnology the techniques and results are very poor and very much labour intensive, but in modern biotechnology the desired ones are only harvested by using modern technology of gene transfer and gene editing.  

Recent advancements in biotechnology are helping modern technologies and sciences to deal with the social needs: 

Cure and Heal the World

There are 250+ vaccines and medicines are developed with the help of biotechnology to cure and prevent the disease. It also includes detection and its techniques to cure or diagnose any disease at early stage.

Fuel the World

Modern biotechnology has grown so far, Bio-fuels like Ethanol and Methane are produced by using yeast and other micro-organisms. The fuels produced by biotechnology are eco-friendly and said to be next generation fuels.

Production of High quality Foods

Today the available foods are having multiple qualities and have greater amount of nutrition with long lasting lifespan. This is done by using modern biotechnology. Green revolution was the first step towards the modern biotechnology which focused on high yielding crops.


Applications of Biotechnology:


In Agriculture 

Modern agriculture is totally based on the biotechnology, and biotechnology has modified and upgraded several crop species to increase the yield these include:
Tomatoes: Their shelf life is increased by introducing the hybrid RNA which slower downs the process of its peel degradation.
Sugarcane: The length of the plant is modified by making hybrids of two sugarcane species to stand for more time.
Wheat: length of the plants is lowered down by gene editing due to which their stems become strong and don’t fell down in blowing air.
Rice: The varieties are improved or can be said to be fortified in higher nutritional content.  
And many more are modified for different environmental and character needs. So far biotechnology is also used in making plants resistance from pest making pest resistance. Some other biological products and their production are facilitated by biotechnologies which are essential oils and secondary metabolites which are being used in medical and other industry.
Biofortified mustard plant... Biotechnology

 In Medicine 

When Biotechnology deals with medical science it becomes medical biotechnology. Role of biotechnology in the medical science speeded up the treatment and diagnosis process of the diseases. However biotechnology is still young and evolving, new efficient techniques are yet to be discovered.
Gene therapy and DNA fingerprinting began a revolution in medical sciences; DNA fingerprinting is widely used in early diagnosis of the hereditary diseases while Gene therapy corrects the genes which are defective. However Gene therapy is most costly and available for very few diseases. 
Biotechnology uses transgenic techniques to obtain several biological molecules which are used in medicines called as bio-pharmaceuticals. Transgenic animals and plants are made to obtain these desired products.     
   

In Environment

Modern biotechnology is dealing in to protect and restore the environment. Biotechnology contributes to pollution control and ways to reduce the pollution. Also alternatives are developed and tested regularly to for better implementation. It also focuses on reducing the environmental hazards like harmful chemicals and their extraction from environment etc. 
Today’s major problem is environmental pollution and the main causes are plastics. Biotechnology is developing the bio-plastics can be a great alternative to plastics. This bio-plastic is more eco-friendly with environment and less harmful.
Conservation of natural resources and Plants are also taken care by biotechnology. New ways and techniques are also developed by biotechnologists to save the plants and natural resources.  


ROLE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY IN DISEASE DIAGNOSIS 


In order to treat any disease it is most important to identify and diagnose the disease first. The early stage and causes of the disease are diagnosed for this several techniques are developed like ELISA- Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay Which is used to diagnose HIV and other viral infections. Blotting techniques are used to diagnose various disease and hereditary disorders.

TRANGENIC ANIMALS – greatest achievement of biotechnology  


Transgenic animals are the genetically modified animals which have been introduced by the gene of interest. They are also called as GMO (Genetically modifies Organisms).  Examples: Rats, Mouse, Sheep, Goat etc.

Importance of Transgenic animals:

They are used as model organisms in the pre-clinical trials.
Used to study the effects of drugs.
Used to study and development of gene regulations.
Study of toxicology

INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY 

Modern food, medical and agriculture industries completely rely on the biotechnology. It is obvious to use cheaper products than costly ones, which is done by biotechnology. Several biotechnological techniques reduced the production costs and time by using natural or modified machinery called as bio-reactors or carried out in-vivo. You can monitor your daily stuffs available in the market and reach to the conclusion. 

DISADVANTAGES OF BIOTECHNOLOGY

No doubt biotechnology has very much importance in modern science, but due to an adverse impact it has some limits: 
Through the transgene experiments, the wild gnomes are getting disappeared or you can say it as gene pollution. Alterations in one’s gene over long time causes in the deletion of wild genome. 

Sunday

Advancement and Challenges in Biopesticides Development

The science is as yet thought to be youthful and developing. A portion of the Biopesticides is being worked on, and may end up being fantastic contrasting options to the compound pesticides. A large number of them depend on the locally accessible plants like Neem, Garlic, and Triphala and so forth which can be effectively prepared and made accessible to the ranchers to enhance the Biopesticides utilization.
Bimolecules are being the most recent activity which had been assumed a critical part in headway and proficiency of Biopesticides. (Engineers, 2008). The GMO's are being the most recent and new headway in the field of Biopesticides. r-DNA innovation is another and perfect progression accomplished in the field of pesticides (e.g.CRISPR-cas framework with single protein effectors).

Nanotechnology

Nano level materials encourage the nuclear level specificity and activity of pesticides just in the focused on condition including particular pH, temperature and nearness of particular mixes. Nanopesticide can decreases the issues which are assessed in compound pesticides (vulnerability on the long haul causing malignancy, liver harm, neural issue and immunotoxicity) and show more bioavailability than conventional Biopesticides. Nanoparticle Bacillus thuringiensis have demonstrated expanded efficiency, great scattering and wet capacity, biodegradable in soil and condition, not so much lethal but rather more photograph generative, with surely knew harmful energy and dangerous elements, and are observed to be steady. If there should arise an occurrence of growth, Nano-chitosan definition had been set up by various techniques. Radical unite polymerization of acrylic corrosive onto chitosan demonstrated antifungal and insecticidal movement against some chose soybean seed borne organisms. Trichoderma based compounds (chitin and glucans) are known to demonstrate bug safe movement. Then again plant based Nano definitions, for example, eucalyptus based Nano emulsions was found to display antimicrobial movement.

Recombinant DNA Biotechnology


Recombinant DNA innovation have been utilized to enhance bacterial bug spray viability and connected to enhance larvicides by controlling and recombining quality for vector control. Mosquitocidal Cyt and Cry proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis alongside the paired poison of Bacillus sphaericus were joined to display enhanced adequacy against culex species. These recombinant builds were utilized as bug sprays as well as indicated compelling control of the mosquito vectors for Dengue fever, filariasis and malaria. The first recombinant vector was created in th field of agriculture to prevent the crops of cotton from insect Bt cotton.  This technology is developing and untill we insert genes which are resistance of insects and pests. 

Future Aspects 


The Bimolecules particularly protein particles are intended to create cutting edge pesticides, which work effectively on bothers. It has been engaged that Biopesticides should address the issue of end client, these are: 
  • targeted, maintainable and earth agreeable 
  • safe for nourishment utilize and human wellbeing 
  • Effective and simple to use.

Challenges 

The development of Biopesticides in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) system by combining ecological science in to genomic technologies.
  • RNA interference can’t be commercialized as it has negative impacts on the plants by itself. 
  • The gene manipulation is not work as expected in some cases.
  • Value added benefits, such as plant health, yields and quality and an increase in beneficials, both traditional and organic cultivation.
Bibliography 
  • International Journal of Biotechnology and Biomedical Sciences p-ISSN 2454-4582, e￾ISSN 2454-7808, Volume 2, Number 1; January-June, 2016 pp. 73-77 “Review of Current Research Advances in Microbial and Phyto-biopesticides” by S Krishna Sundari1*, Aditi Singh2 and Pooja Yadava3 1Biotechnology Department JIIT, Noida 2,3JIIT, NOIDA E-mail: 1krishna.sundari@jiit.ac.in, 2aditi.aditi.singh22@gmail.com, 3poojayadava1891@gmail.com 18. http://googleweblight.com/i?u=http
  • Engineers, 2008 NPCS Board of Consultant and Engineers ASIA PACIFIC BUSINESS PRESS inc. 1/10/2008

Thursday

Recent Advancements in Biopesticides

The science is as yet thought to be youthful and developing. A portion of the Biopesticides is being worked on, and may end up being fantastic contrasting options to the compound pesticides. A large number of them depend on the locally accessible plants like Neem, Garlic, and Triphala and so forth which can be effectively prepared and made accessible to the ranchers to enhance the Biopesticides utilization.
Bimolecules are being the most recent activity which had been assumed a critical part in headway and proficiency of Biopesticides. (Engineers, 2008). The GMO's are being the most recent and new headway in the field of Biopesticides. r-DNA innovation is another and perfect progression accomplished in the field of pesticides (e.g.CRISPR-cas framework with single protein effectors).
Nanotechnology: Nano level materials encourage the nuclear level specificity and activity of pesticides just in the focused on condition including particular pH, temperature and nearness of particular mixes. Nanopesticide can decreases the issues which are assessed in compound pesticides (vulnerability on the long haul causing malignancy, liver harm, neural issue and immunotoxicity) and show more bioavailability than conventional Biopesticides. Nanoparticle Bacillus thuringiensis have demonstrated expanded efficiency, great scattering and wet capacity, biodegradable in soil and condition, not so much lethal but rather more photograph generative, with surely knew harmful energy and dangerous elements, and are observed to be steady. If there should arise an occurrence of growth, Nano-chitosan definition had been set up by various techniques. Radical unite polymerization of acrylic corrosive onto chitosan demonstrated antifungal and insecticidal movement against some chose soybean seed borne organisms. Trichoderma based compounds (chitin and glucans) are known to demonstrate bug safe movement. Then again plant based Nano definitions, for example, eucalyptus based Nano emulsions was found to display antimicrobial movement.
Recombinant DNA Biotechnology: Recombinant DNA innovation have been utilized to enhance bacterial bug spray viability and connected to enhance larvicides by controlling and recombining quality for vector control. Mosquitocidal Cyt and Cry proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis alongside the paired poison of Bacillus sphaericus were joined to display enhanced adequacy against culex species. These recombinant builds were utilized as bug sprays as well as indicated compelling control of the mosquito vectors for Dengue fever, filariasis and malaria.

Sunday

BIOPESTICIDES: AN INTRODUCTION

Pesticides are utilized to shield the products from destructive nuisances and to avert financial misfortunes. Utilization of chemicals in inordinate way can likewise indicate awful effect on nature and regular assets. The idea that 'pesticide as panacea' had been changed lately because of the perilous impacts on human, creatures and nature. Manufactured pesticides like DDT methyl bromide, organophosphates and pyrethroids and so forth, are indicating different ecological, medical problems incorporating resistance advancement in target bothers. Consequently there is expanded research on natural farming and a moving spotlight on contrasting options to grow new Biopesticides. WHO evaluated passing’s as high as 20000 worldwide consistently separated from different unsafe impacts of pesticides, for example, cancer-causing nature, teratogenicity, neural disarranges, high and intense remaining danger, longer corruption periods and collection as nourishment deposits. In display situation, the accentuation has moved from pesticides to Biopesticides a conceivable method for Yield security. Biopesticides are the vermin control operators which are planned from plant, creature and microbial sources. Biopesticides are the pesticides which depend on the organic measure and are normally delivered biochemical substance, non-harmful and can be utilized in bother control. The plants were presented a few exgenes which keeps them from the nuisance called as transgenic plants or hereditarily changed plants. These are the sorts of pesticides got from the characteristic materials as creatures, plants, microorganisms, infections, organisms and certain minerals and proteins . Biopesticides are utilized to control irritations, pathogens, and weeds by assortment of means. It has been trusted that the Biopesticides have botanic starting point as they were monetarily removed from plants. Biopesticides can be utilized by anybody searching for an option bother administration approach. E.g.: business cultivators, agriculturists, elaborate bloom producers, nursery worker's etc. The pests incorporate illnesses, creepy crawlies, bugs, and weeds that harm trims and lessen edit yield and quality. Numerous Biopesticides are more earth neighborly than engineered pesticides . For the most part Biopesticides are comprised of living things and which are originates from living things. Their little amounts can be viable and they are effectively flimsy along these lines less contaminations . The Biopesticides section possesses a little part of the extensive pesticide advertise in India. In 2005, it represented only 2.89%, which was required to increment by 2.3%. Until 2011, there were 12 distinct sorts of Biopesticides enrolled in India . It is engaged while planning a pesticide Microorganisms and plant based biochemical speak to an option way in light of their security to people and non target creatures, both in singular applications and inside coordinated vermin administration (IPM).
As indicated by their root from the species or living beings Biopesticides are extensively arranged in to three noteworthy classifications:


1. Microbial Pesticides 
The Biopesticides got or created from the smaller scale life forms are eluded as Microbial Pesticides, For example, microscopic organisms, growths, and other protozoan gathering. These are generally target particular life forms which are meant to murdering one or gathering of vermin. .Most generally utilized is bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis which delivers an end poison amid spore arrangement and causes lyses of gut cells when devoured by bugs. Agrobacterium radiobacter is utilized to control crown gall
2. Biochemical Pesticides 
These are home grown based substances which are normally delivered by a plant or a life form. These are non-lethal and biodegradable substances. They help the plant in counter-assaulting its bugs or creating chemicals that would avoid bug assault on the plant or harms the bugs in a request to counteract plant. Illustrations are unsaturated fats, hormones. Chemical mixer or their manufactured analogs discharged by creatures or plants for protective purposes or to pass data among collaborating species are alluded to as Biochemical. Most broadly utilized Biochemical for trim insurance is creepy crawly sex hormones utilized for bother control and mass catching.
3. Plant Incorporated Protectants
These are the hereditarily altered substances created in vitro in a way to which plant delivers its own particular pesticide (in vivo) when presented in plants. Plant concentrate and vegetable oil based items Citronella oil, Garlic separate, Neem remove, Datura, orange oil , tea tree extricate, Basil, Lemon grass, Apple mint, mustard, Castor, Mahagony, sesame and numerous more optional metabolites of plant are utilized as Biopesticides against bugs. Most generally utilized plant compound is Neem oil. Pyrethrins are likewise utilized as bug sprays and removed from Chrysanthemum cineraria folium plants - principally found in bloom. Pyrethrins have low harmfulness to warm blooded animals and debase quickly after application bringing about the advancement of manufactured pyrethrins. PhomaTech is a market accessible plant based Biocontrol operator.



Thursday

HISTORY OF BIOPESTICIDES

The primary thought of pesticides was presented in mid seventeenth century. In spite of the fact that at in mid seventeenth century plants extricates were likely utilized and later they are eluded as Biopesticides . Later investigations were set down to the advancement of manufactured pesticides which were driven by the normally happening pesticides (Biopesticides). As historical records, nicotine was utilized to control plum creepy crawlies as right on time as the seventeenth century. Examinations including organic controls for creepy crawly bothers in agribusiness go back similar to 1835.
Later in nineteenth century mineral oils were utilized as plant protectants. Amid the fast extension of horticultural research amid mid twentieth century, a regularly developing investigation and proposition over Biopesticides were produced.
The first and still most broadly utilized Biopesticides included spores of microbes Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). In 1901, Bt was confined from a sick silkworm by Japanese researcher Shigetane Ishwita. In the mid twentieth century innovative work proceeded at low level due to the broad appropriation of less expensive however more harmful engineered concoction bug spray. Amid the mid twentieth century Biopesticides advancement for the control of plant sickness has experienced a comparable change, investigations of soil microbiology and biology had prompted the ID of a wide range of microorganisms that go about as foes of pathogens and creepy crawly bugs . In 1940s the overwhelming and uncontrolled utilization of manufactured pesticides produced using chemicals was begun. Till then in India normal bug sprays were utilized (Rotenone from the foundations of derris plant, and pyrethrum from the blossom leaders of types of chrysanthemum). Following 20 years it was discovered that the levels of manufactured pesticides was fabricating and were not biodegradable and their hurtful impacts turning out. Since first century Neem plant has been utilized for restorative reason and control of specific sicknesses in India.


Accordingly Neem has different hostile properties, and it had been utilized as a part of different approaches to ensure greenery. It has been discovered that chemicals removed out of their seeds and seed pieces are successful Biopesticides. From that point the utilization of Neem as pesticide in India was begun.
 full article.......... ......Read Full Article

BIOPESTICIDES | Review

In recent days it has been focused on the production of plant products (food and other products) by emphasizing on their abilities and qualities. Thus plant pathogens became a great challenge to which we deal and produce high yield without harming plant and its products. To overcome these pathogens Biopesticides had been played a crucial role since past times. Initially Neem (biocide) extracts were used as pesticides which were naturally occurring material known to farmers, now various chemically defined and specific pesticide are developed. We also use naturally occurring substances as Biopesticides which are being produced naturally.


INTRODUCTION

Pesticides are utilized to shield the products from destructive nuisances and to avert financial misfortunes. Utilization of chemicals in inordinate way can likewise indicate awful effect on nature and regular assets. The idea that 'pesticide as panacea' had been changed lately because of the perilous impacts on human, creatures and nature. Manufactured pesticides like DDT methyl bromide, organophosphates and pyrethroids and so forth, are indicating different ecological, medical problems incorporating resistance advancement in target bothers. Consequently there is expanded research on natural farming and a moving spotlight on contrasting options to grow new Biopesticides. WHO evaluated passing’s as high as 20000 worldwide consistently separated from different unsafe impacts of pesticides, for example, cancer-causing nature, teratogenicity, neural disarranges, high and intense remaining danger, longer corruption periods and collection as nourishment deposits. In display situation, the accentuation has moved from pesticides to Biopesticides a conceivable method for Yield security. Biopesticides are the vermin control operators which are planned from plant, creature and microbial sources. [1, 17] Biopesticides are the pesticides which depend on the organic measure and are normally delivered biochemical substance, non-harmful and can be utilized in bother control. The plants were presented a few exgenes which keeps them from the nuisance called as transgenic plants or hereditarily changed plants. These are the sorts of pesticides got from the characteristic materials as creatures, plants, microorganisms, infections, organisms and certain minerals and proteins [1]. Biopesticides are utilized to control irritations, pathogens, and weeds by assortment of means. It has been trusted that the Biopesticides have botanic starting point as they were monetarily removed from plants. Biopesticides can be utilized by anybody searching for an option bother administration approach. E.g.: business cultivators, agriculturists, elaborate bloom producers, nursery worker's etc. The pests incorporate illnesses, creepy crawlies, bugs, and weeds that harm trims and lessen edit yield and quality. Numerous Biopesticides are more earth neighborly than engineered pesticides [2]. For the most part Biopesticides are comprised of living things and which are originates from living things. Their little amounts can be viable and they are effectively flimsy along these lines less contaminations [3]. The Biopesticides section possesses a little part of the extensive pesticide advertise in India. In 2005, it represented only 2.89%, which was required to increment by 2.3%. Until 2011, there were 12 distinct sorts of Biopesticides enrolled in India [4]. It is engaged while planning a pesticide Microorganisms and plant based biochemical speak to an option way in light of their security to people and non target creatures, both in singular applications and inside coordinated vermin administration (IPM). [ 17]
As indicated by their root from the species or living beings Biopesticides are extensively arranged in to three noteworthy classifications:


1. Microbial Pesticides 


The Biopesticides got or created from the smaller scale life forms are eluded as Microbial Pesticides, For example, microscopic organisms, growths, and other protozoan gathering. These are generally target particular life forms which are meant to murdering one or gathering of vermin. .Most generally utilized is bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis which delivers an end poison amid spore arrangement and causes lyses of gut cells when devoured by bugs. Agrobacterium radiobacter is utilized to control crown gall [17]

2. Biochemical Pesticides 

These are home grown based substances which are normally delivered by a plant or a life form. These are non-lethal and biodegradable substances. They help the plant in counter-assaulting its bugs or creating chemicals that would avoid bug assault on the plant or harms the bugs in a request to counteract plant. Illustrations are unsaturated fats, hormones. [3]. Chemical mixer or their manufactured analogs discharged by creatures or plants for protective purposes or to pass data among collaborating species are alluded to as Biochemical. Most broadly utilized Biochemical for trim insurance is creepy crawly sex hormones utilized for bother control and mass catching. [17]

3. Plant Incorporated Protectants

These are the hereditarily altered substances created in vitro in a way to which plant delivers its own particular pesticide (in vivo) when presented in plants. Plant concentrate and vegetable oil based items Citronella oil, Garlic separate, Neem remove, Datura, orange oil , tea tree extricate, Basil, Lemon grass, Apple mint, mustard, Castor, Mahagony, sesame and numerous more optional metabolites of plant are utilized as Biopesticides against bugs. Most generally utilized plant compound is Neem oil. Pyrethrins are likewise utilized as bug sprays and removed from Chrysanthemum cineraria folium plants - principally found in bloom. Pyrethrins have low harmfulness to warm blooded animals and debase quickly after application bringing about the advancement of manufactured pyrethrins. PhomaTech is a market accessible plant based Biocontrol operator.  [17]

Reference 

  1. http://www.agrilife.in/biopesticides.htm
  2. http://www.agr.gc.ca/eng/?id=1467729484529
  3. http://npic.orst.edu/ingred/ptype/biopest.html
  4. http://www.ecoideaz.com/expert-corner/bio-pesticides-in-india-a-safer-alternative
  5. http://www.bpia.org/history-of-biopesticides/
  6. http://tifac.org.in/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=652&Itemid=205
  7. http://tifac.org.in/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=652&Itemid=205
  8. https://www.epa.gov/ingredients-used-pesticide-products/what-are-biopesticides
  9. http://agriinfo.in/?page=topic&superid=3&topicid=1951
  10. http://www.seedbuzz.com/knowledge-center/article/bio-pesticides-benefits-barriers
  11. https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/biopesticides-present-status-and-the-future-prospects-jbfbp-1000e129.php?aid=64583
  12. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5178364/
  13. https://bioprotection.org.nz/research/next-generation-biopesticides
  14. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309273902_Current_Scenario_of_Biopesticides_and_Eco-Friendly_Insect_Pest_Management_in_India
  15. http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/indian-biopesticides-market-2015---growth-trends-and-forecasts-to-2020-300089511.html
  16. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3130386/
  17. International Journal of Biotechnology and Biomedical Sciences p-ISSN 2454-4582, e-ISSN 2454-7808, Volume 2, Number 1; January-June, 2016 pp. 73-77 “Review of Current Research Advances in Microbial and Phyto-biopesticides” by S Krishna Sundari1*, Aditi Singh2 and Pooja Yadava3 1Biotechnology Department JIIT, Noida 2,3JIIT, NOIDA E-mail: 1krishna.sundari@jiit.ac.in, 2aditi.aditi.singh22@gmail.com, 3poojayadava1891@gmail.com