During past times ornamental plants are part of rich man’s garden. In recent years scenario changed and floriculture gained interest for small scale farmers in growing as entrepreneurs. Floriculture is cultivation of flowers and ornamental crops from seed and grafted stage till they reach market. Cut flowers have a large market in recent days and are definite hosts for celebrations in metro cities. Floriculture market is not only confined to cut flowers but also has its shade in supplying raw materials for cosmetics, perfumes and pharmaceuticals relying on natural products. Apart from traditional loose flowers like Jasmines and Marigold many other cut flowers along with their stems have gained florists interest. Roses, Gladiolus, Lilies, Carnations, Orchids, Tulips, Gerbera are most common cut flowers for bouquets and decorative purposes. 


Roses are one of the oldest and widest cultivated flower species on earth. Apart from using rose oil and rose water in the cosmetics and soaps, the oils are well known members of Ayurvedic healing treatments. Throwing back its utilization in cosmetic industry, roses always stand as topper in decorations as cut flowers, bouquets and garden displays.
Rose flower cultivation, floriculture-Rose
Rose flower cultivation 
Floribundas, Hybrid Tea, Polyanthus, China roses, Miniature roses, Grandiflora, Ballerina and Bourbon roses are common names known among cultivators. Floribunda and Hybrid Tea are well known for cut flowers usage and are cultivated in a number of attractive colors. Miniature roses are popular for garden designing as pot decorators.

Plant material for cultivation:

Roses are cultivated by asexual means of reproduction. Grafting, budding and stem cutting are used in propagating rose species. Plants are grafted for protecting its vigor and longevity. T-shield budding is best known for cultivation of hybrid roses like Floribunda and hybrid T roses.

1. T- Shield budding:

Small swellings visible on the rose stem are selected such that eyes only bud up but have not grown or elongated. The part containing eye on bud wood (one containing eye) is cut with budding knife and shield piece having bark and eye are separated from interior stem piece. Simultaneously root stock is prepared by removing off side shoots and branches. A small T shaped pocket (a vertical cut) is made on root stock at anterior edge nearly 3 inches away from internode. The shield containing eye is accommodated into this vertical cut on root stock and tied with fiber ensuring enough air reaches the bud. Off shoots and suckers from root stocks should be pinched off otherwise growth of bud may be suppressed and root stock continues its growth. Stem part above bud is cut off after bud insertion for successful budding operation. 
Fall of leaf petiole above to the inserted bud after few days of bud insertion is a sign of successful budding. If leaf petiole has not fallen off properly but still hangs onto stem and bud has turned into black color indicates that budding has failed and need to be repeated.

2. Cutting:

Stem cuttings are made from healthy and disease free root stocks at length of minimum 12 cm using sharp budding knife at inclined angles. The cut ends are dipped in IA (Indole 3- acetic acid) and BA (6- Benzyl adenine) suspension and planted in moist chambers for efficient and quicker root induction. Roots grow well after 12 to 15 weeks of planting the stem cuts. Then plantlets are manured well for growth of foliage and aerial parts.

Whether budding or grafting?

Each node is potential source of bud in case of T- shield budding. So a single healthy stem can be a source for multiple number of buds. And a single rose twig can produce numerous clones. Stem cuttings on other hand can give a single plantlet. So horticulturist cultivate through budding to produce more and more number of plants if farm is developed from primary stage. Otherwise if the farm is under extension, stem cuttings can serve best use on such small scale needs.
When the root stocks have special disease resistance, insect resistance characters and that need to be implicated in multiple copies, budding is performed. 
Success rate depends on callus formation between bud and root stock. This depends on genetic incompatibility between partners. The area of union should not be too wet and needs well aeration for callus to develop. Success rate is more if selected partners are from same genera, species.

Farm land Preparation and planting:

  • Roses are hardy plants and produce flowers on year long time scale. So plant beds are prepared keeping in mind that plants live there for repeated seasons. They grow well in loamy soils with adequate amount of organic content. 
  • The farm land needs to be well tilled and left exposed to sun light at least one month prior to planting. Hence the best season for preparing plant bed is during May – June. So once the monsoon starts, plantlets are planted and so conditions are ambient for small plantlets to acclimate for field conditions. Pits are made prior to planting such that plantlet can accommodate well along with earthened soil in order to maintain the microenvironment at root interface.
  • If planted from stem cuttings, main stem is placed in center of pit and soil is covered over the pit.
  • If planted from T-buds the root stock is planted into soil pit such that bud (eye that has elongated on the new root stock) is above the soil and adequate amount of sunlight reaches it. Plantlets are watered well and sunlight should not be too harsh till root system develops. Field should be drained well to avoid water logging for newly developed roots.
  • Post planting the soil beds need to be well irrigated with salt free water. Plants need perfect sunlight and humidity needs to be well maintained in green houses.
  • Good amount of sunlight with duration of minimum 6 hours is necessary for healthy vegetative growth.

Flowering and farm maintenance:

Pruning is removing the dead and diseased ends. In farms that are cultivating from repeated seasons pruning is a necessary step before buds start to grow. Pruning is performed when the plants are nearing dormant stage. All the suckers arising from root stocks, criss-cross tangled shoots, dry and less vigorous stems are lost in this step. This ensures breaking dormancy and buds initiate on fresh and strong stems. Using cutters, old dead ends are cut at 45 degree angle into a clean sharp cut. Hybrid teas and floribundas flower nearly after 45 days of pruning.
Nitrogen and Potassium are essential for healthy stem growth and flower bud development. Deficiency of nitrogen can lead to small sized leaves and weaker stems. Phosphorous ensures healthy root growth and stimulates flowering. It can be provided as phosphoric acid or super phosphate. Foliar spray of micronutrients with magnesium and borax supplements ensures good quality flowers.
Few varieties produce multiple buds (main bud accompanied by small side buds) below the center main bud. Side buds are disbudded at earlier stages of development in order to avoid wound scars for cut flowers. Disbudding ensures farmers with stem ending in a single large and attractive bud that attains profit in market.
Roses demand bigger water needs and field needs to be well irrigated with salt free water after pruning for healthy foliage development. Farmers must ensure that water do not log the root system otherwise roots face aeration issues. Weeding needs to be performed on interval basis manually.

Harvest and post harvest measures:

Flowers are harvested in a tight bud stage, just after petals have gained full color and start unfolding. This is performed during mornings or evenings using sharp blades and cut stem ends are placed in water immediately for prolonged freshness. Flowers are stored at 2-4°C cold storage and segregated based on stem length. Grade 1 flowers with a stem length 45 cm and grade 2 flowers having 30-35 cm are packed separately. 10-12 flowers per bunch are generally packed in corrugated card board boxes in-lined with news paper or tissue paper. 

Trade and profit:

Roses have a good market in National and International market. As a bottom line good quality flowers ensure handful profit for cultivator. On an average cut flowers are sold at Rs 10 per piece and loose flowers at Rs 2000 per kilogram. Hybrid Tea yields around 80 flowers per plant per year and Floribunda yields 90 flowers per plant per year. Roses being perennial plants draw a handsome amount of profit to the cultivator.
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  1. This is in fact very keen and informative

  2. Rohit04 July

    Nice.... Can you suggest some start up ideas.....

    1. Well start up is a good thing. But in my view start up orients on some thing wider than farming. I mean start up takes into account on financial gains. Selecting a good farm land, choosing the right species with attractive and vibrant colors, fetching farm needs and finally making the harvest to reach market are areas of concern. A perfect business plan will help in fetching gains. And above all, expertise in farm land handling is important.

  3. This comment has been removed by the author.

  4. Nice...this was interesting

  5. Wondering what to include in your unique flower designs? Or maybe you're just looking for a dainty, yet hardy flower for your garden. September's birthflower, the Aster may be the right choice for you. protectandheal-dnu

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