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Showing posts with label BIOTECHNOLOGY. Show all posts
Showing posts with label BIOTECHNOLOGY. Show all posts

Saturday, November 03, 2018

INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGICAL DATABASES


As biology has increasingly turned into a data-rich science, the need for storing and communicating large datasets has grown rapidly.  The  examples are the nucleotide sequences, the protein sequences, and the 3D structural data produced by X-ray crystallography and macromolecular NMR
Bioinformatics is the application of Information technology to store, organize and analyze the vast amount of biological data which is available in the form of sequences and structures of proteins (the building blocks of organisms) and nucleic acids (the information carrier). The biological information of nucleic acids is available  as sequences while  the data of proteins is available as sequences and structures. Sequences are represented in single dimension where as the structure contains the three dimensional data of sequences.
There are two main functions of biological databases:


  • Make biological data available to scientists.              As much as possible of a particular type of information should be available in one single place (book, site, and database). Published data may be difficult to find or access and collecting it from the literature is very time- consuming. And not all data is actually published explicitly in an article (genome sequences!).
  • To make biological data available in computer-readable form.



Since analysis of biological data almost always involves computers, having the data in computer-readable form (rather than printed on paper) is a necessary first step.
Types of data generated by  research:
  • Nucleotide sequences (DNA and mRNA)
  • Protein sequences
  • 3-D protein structures
  • Complete genomes and maps


Based on this information and further research also we have 
  • Gene Expression data
  • Polymorphism 


Historical Aspects behind the Databases 

The first idea about creating a database was came in existence when Sanger first discovered the method to sequence proteins.
The first database was created within a short period after the Insulin protein sequence was made available in 1956. Incidentally, Insulin is the first protein to be sequenced. The sequence of Insulin consisted of just 51 residues (analogous to alphabets in a sentence) which characterize the sequence. Around mid nineteen sixties, the first nucleic acid sequence of Yeast tRNA with 77 bases (individual units of nucleic acids) was found out. During this period, 3D structures of proteins were studied and the well known Protein Data Bank was developed as the first protein structure database with only 10 entries in 1972.  This has now grown in to a large database with over 10,000 entries. While the initial databases of protein sequences were maintained at the individual laboratories, the development of a consolidated formal database known as SWISS-PROT protein sequence database was initiated in 1986 which now has about 70,000 protein sequences from more than 5000 model organisms, a small fraction of all known organisms. These huge varieties of divergent data resources are now available for study and research by both academic institutions and industries. These are made available as public domain information in the larger interest of research community through Internet  and CDROMs. These databases are constantly updated with additional entries.

Biological Databases 

Biological databases can be broadly classified into sequence and structure databases. Sequence databases are applicable to both nucleic acid sequences and protein sequences, whereas structure database is applicable to only Proteins. 
Databases in general can be classified in to
  1. Primary Database 
  2. Secondary Database 
  3. Composite Databases 
  4. Structure Databases


A primary database contains information of the sequence or structure alone. Examples of these include Swiss-Prot and PIR for protein sequences, GenBank and  DDBJ for Genome sequences and the Protein Databank for protein structures. In this database the data is originally obtained and maintained for further studies.
Primary Nucleotide Sequence Repository – GenBank, EMBL, DDBJ
Primary Protein Sequence Repositories--PIR-PSD or protein information resource – protein sequence database, at the NBRF (National Biomedical Research Foundation, USA), and SWISS-PROT at the SBI (Swiss Biotechnology Institute, Switzerland 
A secondary database contains derived information from the primary database. A secondary sequence database contains information like the conserved sequence, signature sequence and active site residues of the protein families arrived by multiple sequence alignment of a set of related proteins. A secondary structure database contains entries of  the PDB in an organized way. These contain entries that are classified according to their structure like all alpha proteins, all beta proteins, etc. These also contain information on conserved secondary structure motifs of a particular protein. Some of the secondary database created and hosted by various researchers at their individual laboratories includes SCOP, developed at Cambridge University; CATH developed at University College of London, PROSITE of Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, eMOTIF at Stanford.

Composite database contains a variety of different primary database sources, which obviates the need to search multiple resources. Different composite database use different primary database and different criteria in their search algorithm. Various options for search have also been incorporated in the composite database. The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) which hosts these nucleotide and protein databases in their large high available redundant array of computer servers, provides free access to the various persons involved in research. This also has link to OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) which contains information about the proteins involved in genetic diseases.

Structure Databases  like sequence databases comes in two varieties, primary and secondary. Strictly speaking there is only one database that stores primary structural data  of biological molecules, namely the PDB. In the context of this database, term macromolecule stretches to cover three orders of magnitude of molecular weight from 1000 Daltons to 1000 kilo Daltons Small biological and organic molecules have their structures stored in another primary structure database the CSD, which is also widely used in biological studies. This contains the three dimensional structure of drugs, inhibitors and fragments or monomers of the macromolecule.


Application of the Biological Databases 

Sequence Analysis 

Every new searched sequence is first matched with the sequences present in the databases to identify its functionality and uniqueness.  If the sequence is already present in the databases further studies becomes easier if not then every minute information is collected about it and stored for future reference in databases.

Prediction of Protein Structure 

It is easy to determine the primary structure of proteins in the form of amino acids which are present on the DNA molecule but it is difficult to determine the secondary, tertiary or quaternary structures of proteins. For this purpose either the method of crystallography is used or tools of bioinformatics can also be used to determine the complex protein structures. By comparing the new data with existing data the bioinformatic tools can predict function and structures. 

Genome Annotation 

In genome annotation, genomes are marked to know the regulatory sequences and protein coding. It is a very important part of the human genome project as it determines the regulatory sequences.

Comparative Genomics


Comparative genomics is the branch of bioinformatics which determines the genomic structure and function relation between different biological species. For this purpose, intergenomic maps are constructed which enable the scientists to trace the processes of evolution that occur in genomes of different species. These maps contain the information about the point mutations as well as the information about the duplication of large chromosomal segments, which are extracted from the databases.

Health and Drug discovery

The tools of bioinformatics are also helpful in drug discovery, diagnosis and disease management. Complete sequencing of human genes has enabled the scientists to make medicines and drugs which can target more than 500 genes. Different computational tools and drug targets has made the drug delivery easy and specific because now only those cells can be targeted which are diseased or mutated. It is also easy to know the molecular basis of a disease, stored in the databases.

Conclusion 

The present test is to deal with a huge volume of information, for example, the ones created by the human genome venture, to enhance database configuration, create programming for database access and control, and gadget information passage strategies to make up for the fluctuated PC techniques and frameworks utilized in various research facilities. There is most likely that Bioinformatics apparatuses for proficient research will have huge effect in organic sciences and advancement of human lives.

Sunday, August 05, 2018

CLONING | Advantage to Prokaryotes or US!

Scientifically the species which are the exact copies of their parents are termed as clones and the process is called as cloning. Clones are formed by asexual reproduction without any genetic alterations ( as occurs in sexual reproduction ). The species produced via this type of technique have limited life spans and low chances of survival. 
According to the theory of evolution, the species  which fits themselves best in environment have better chances of survival and every species have some sort of variations as compared to their parents which makes them suitable for the changing environment. Its amazing that the Prokaryotes produces via asexual reproduction in which are exact copy of their parents, still most of them survives in harsh environmental conditions. 

Post Reproduction Adaptations 

It is  seen in species that after the reproduction they might adapt some changes at genetic level both Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes. This mostly seen in Prokaryotes because they need lot of changes to survive.
Single Cell species which reproduce through asexual reproduction have greater abilities to adapt the environmental changes at their genetic level so that their next progenies will already have and not facing problems. But this adaptation is very quick and limited only few species are able to adapt rest of them are dead. This maintains their population because sigle cell species are disease causing agents for Eukaryotes,  if their population increase drastically others may face problems.

Why they produce via Asexual mode? 

The Prokaryotes are harmful for Eukaryotes as they are disease causing agents. However they contribute a lot in the ecosystem.( discussed in next section). Here are the major reasons:

  • Their population is controlled because they  replicate themselves as very high frequency if all of them able to survive than whole ecosystem will unbalanced soon. 
  • Being a single cell they have best mode of regulation of their next generation, however some species are able to produce via sexual mode of reproduction during extreme conditions e.g: Aspergillus

Application in Biotechnology 

Their rapid growth and multiplication attracted scientists and researchers to use them as natural bioreactors. Along with their life cycle they produce some metabolic chemicals which are benifitable sometime and sometime harmful. 

  • Production of antibiotics by  bacteria and fungi. Streptomycin,tetracycline and erythromycin are some of the commonly known antibiotics which are made from fungi and bacteria.
  • Production of Chemicals, Enzymes and other Bioactive Molecules
  • Examples of acid producers are
  • Aspergillus niger (a fungus) of citric acid
  • Acetobacter aceti (a bacterium) of acetic acid
  • Clostridium butylicum (a bacterium) of butyric acid
  • Lactobacillus (a bacterium) of lactic acid.
  • Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is used for commercial production of ethanol.
  • Lipases are used in detergent formulations and are helpful in removing oily stains from the laundry.
  • The bottled juices are clarified by the use of pectinases and proteases.
  • Streptokinase produced by the bacterium Streptococcus and modified by genetic engineering is used as a ‘clot buster’ for removing clots from the blood vessels of patients who have undergone myocardial infraction leading to heart attack.
  • Another bioactive molecule, cyclosporin A, that is used as an immunosuppressive agent in organ-transplant patients, is produced by the fungus Tnchoderma polysporum.
  • Statins produced by the yeast Monascus purpureus have been commercialized as blood-cholesterol lowering agents. It acts by competitively inhibiting the enzyme responsible for synthesis of cholesterol.
  • Conversion of Milk into Curd by Lactobacillus. 
  • Fermentation of milk in industries. 
  • Sewage treatment.
  • Production of Biogas. 
  • Microbes as biocontrol agents : Biocontrol refers to the use of biological methods for controlling plant diseases and pests. Biological agents are a better alternative to weedicides and pesticides.
  • Microbes as Biofertilisers. 
Bibliography 
NCERT  text books from 6 to 12.

Friday, July 27, 2018

Gene Therapy | Medical Evolution

Now a days it is being focused on the functionality and the speciality of genes to use them as precursor of antipeptides, so in case of any disorder no need to give antipeptides externally. Gene therapy is an emerging technique in which genes are preferred to treat or prevent the disorders inspite of using drugs and surgery’s. Researchers are testing possible approaches to gene therapy including,Replacing a mutated or defective gene that causes disease with a healthy copy of the gene, Inactivating, or “knocking out,” a mutated gene that is functioning improperly,Introducing a new gene which produces the anti effectives into the body to help fight a disease. Although gene therapy is a promising treatment option for a number of diseases like  inherited disorders, some types of cancer, and on certain viral infections, But this technique remains risky and is still under study to make sure that it will be safer and effective. Gene therapy is currently being tested only for diseases that have no other cures.

INTRODUCTION

Genes are the basic inheritance and regulatory molecules which commands the cell via expressing themselves in terms of proteins. Therapy with using genes is  a  novel  treatment method  in which    genes  or  short  oligonucleotide sequences  used as  therapeutic  molecules, instead of  using conventional  drug compounds and surgery’s . This technique  is  widely  used to treat  those  defective  genes  which are responsible in the development of diseases [1,2]. The treatment is better and preferred over conventional drugs methods [2]. Our genetic program is made up of thousand of genes, stretches of DNA, that generally code for different proteins that do particular jobs in the cells in our body. The idea of using drugs and antipeptides is replaced by gene therapy, as the genes express them selves in terms of peptides [3]. 

HISTORICAL ASPECTS 

The first idea of gene therapy was introduced by Theodore Friedmann and Richard Roblin during 1960’s. They are the first who gave the concept of treatment via introducing a particular gene which lasts to the next generations [4]. Now we have several gene editing and inserting tools e.g: CRISPR-CAS9,  which may be useful in cancer and viral treatments.

WHY GENE THERAPY! 

The research and the exploration of inherent molecules such as RNA and DNA gave rise to the concept of treating disorders and syndromes directly by an organism itself for life time.  As the inherent molecules have the capability to transfer generation over generation so transferring the gene of interest is permanent cure for the syndromes and disorders.

  • The genes have the ability to inherit in next generation thus leading to permanent cure for the disorders and syndromes.
  • Gene are the regulatory molecules present in cell so the defective ones can be removed which results in the permanent cure with no further medication.


REFFERNCES

  1. Bainbridge, J. W. B.;  Smith, A.  J.;  Barker, S. S.;  Robbie, S.;  Henderson, R.;  Balaggan, K.;  Viswanathan, A.;  Holder, G. E. et  al. (2008). "Effect  of  Gene  Therapy  on Visual Function in  Leber's  Congenital  Amaurosis". New  England Journal  of  Medicine  358 (21): 2231–2239.   
  2. Genetic Science Learning Center. (2012, December 1) What is Gene Therapy?. Retrieved January 30, 2018, from http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/genetherapy/intro/
  3. Shalini Jaiswal*, 2Gautam Singh, Jawwad Husain2  1Assistant Professor, Chemistry Department, AMITY University, Noida Campus, India.  2Biotechnology Department, AMITY University, Noida Campus, India. *Corresponding author’s E-mail: shaliniajaiswal@gmail.com  “Mechanism and Antimicrobial Application of Histatin 5, Defensin and  Cathelicidin Peptides Derivatives”
  4. Theodore Friedmann and Richard Roblin  "Gene therapy for human genetic disease?" 1972 Mar 3;175(4025):949-55



Wednesday, February 28, 2018

Biological Role of Heavy Water

Examining of water and its connection with its natural structure uncovers an energizing and promising region of concentrates that may lead us far in comprehension of typical and neurotic procedures of life. In reality, the structure of water proposes another point of view on life itself. As of not long ago water was viewed as a pretty much nonpartisan medium filling the space between the basic components of the cell. «Water is a fundamental piece of the living being, and not only its environment». In such a way the part of water is portrayed by surely understood biophysicist Albert Szent-Györgyi in his book «Bioenergetics». We will center around a property of water, which has not yet been connected extraordinary significance. It will be an issue of natural part of that little measure of overwhelming water which is contained in normal water and, in this manner, in creatures. Most by far of standard water atoms is H2O with polluting influence of HDO particles. Honest to goodness substantial water has atoms of a kind of D2O (the distinction in the oxygen isotopes is ignored in all cases). At the point when substantial water was found (1932), the investigation of its impact on organic articles when utilized as a part of high fixations started. Thought substantial water, in which all hydrogen molecules are supplanted by deuterium, contrasts from normal water in physical properties. In normal water the nearness of a little sum (0,0149%) of overwhelming water basically does not influence its physical properties. Mixes with typical and substantial hydrogen likewise contrast from each other in compound properties. Supplanting of normal hydrogen by substantial one essentially prompts decreasing of the rate of compound responses (by 3-10 times). Normally, the substitution of a noteworthy piece of the hydrogen particles with deuterium will prompt a log jam in numerous synthetic responses that decide complex natural procedures in cells, tissues and body all in all.
Be that as it may, it is as of now conceivable to make a conclusion that the most widely recognized physical and natural contemplations show that a little change in convergence of overwhelming water in life form (even near its "typical" esteem) can give an incredible organic impact. In reality, on the off chance that we take a gander at a recipe of any natural particle, the eye gets the plenitude of hydrogen iotas. Hydrogen particle as the lightest, the most deft and effectively changed over into H+ particle or shaping a Goodness particle together with an oxygen molecule assumes an extremely uncommon part in every single biochemical process in living beings. The course of natural procedures is unavoidably connected with such physical marvels as dissemination through permeable layers, isotope trade responses and so forth., which cause an isolating isotope impact, and because of it the proportion between the quantity of H and D molecules in various parts of the body will be not quite the same as the normal for the body. It is referred to that as time passes by overwhelming water amasses in the body. This amassing in particular organs may likewise go speedier than the normal for the body because of the previously mentioned physical causes. What's more, very embellishments can make a substitution of deuterium particles hydrogen iotas in the atoms of DNA. Substitution in the DNA, for instance, 10-25% of deuterium particles by hydrogen iotas won't cause a calamity, obviously (just around 0.015% of the hydrogen particles are deuterium), since it won't change the general arrangement of advancement of the living being encoded in DNA (substantial hydrogen is still hydrogen), yet this change could influence the pace of development of new DNA atoms and along these lines the entire existence of a life form. These presumptions about the conceivable component of activity of little changes in the grouping of overwhelming water opens the field for look into in the broadest sense, starting with general natural inquiries and completion with issues of gerontology and geriatrics. Encounters with low deuterium wate are exceptionally available. Nature gives us such water in incredible sums – this is as a matter of first importance the snow water.Snow water (arranged with specific insurances) contrasted and regular stream water or rain water contains not 0.0149% of overwhelming water, but rather roughly 1/4 less (i.e. around 0,012%). Water acquired from ice is comparable in organization to the snow water. At the point when ice liquefies, the primary bunch of liquefy water is deuterium-drained, however later bits will way to deal with common stream water in the substance of substantial water. For maintainable outcomes it is conceivable to suggest just snow water.

Tuesday, February 27, 2018

HEAVY WATER

It is also known as deuterium oxide (D2O). It is form of water that contains large amount of hydrogen isotope deuterium (heavy hydrogen). Deuterium differs from hydrogen which is usually found in water. Heavy water may be deuterium protium oxide (DHO) or deuterium oxide (D2O). The presence of deuterium increase mass of water and gives different chemical and physical property compared to normal water.
Heavy water is used in certain types of nuclear reactors, where it acts as a neutron moderator to slow down neutrons. It also used in nuclear magnetic resonance, organic chemistry, fourier transform spectroscopy, neutron moderator, neutrino detector, tritium production and metabolic rate testing in physiology and biology.

Friday, February 23, 2018

Biofuels an introduction

Since  the  energy  crises  of  the  1970s,  many  countries  have  utilized  biomass  as  a  fuel  source  to expand  the  development  of  its  domestic  and  renewable  energy  initiatives  and  reduce  the environmental  and  ecological  impact  of  energy  production.    Bioenergy  accounts  for  almost  35% of  primary  energy  consumed  in  developing  countries,  raising  its  contribution  in  the  world  to 14%.                          The  most  important  biomass  energy  sources  are  wood  and  wood  wastes,  agricultural  crops  and  its waste  byproducts,  municipal  solid  waste  (MSW),  animal  wastes,  waste  from  food  processing,  and aquatic  plants  and  algae.  The  majority  of  biomass  energy  is  produced  from  wood  and  wood  wastes (64%),  followed  by  MSW  (24%),  agricultural  waste  (5%),  and  landfill  gas  (5%).    In  the industrialized  countries,  the  main  biomass  processes  are  expected  to  be  direct  combustion  of residues  and  wastes  for  electricity  generation,  bio-ethanol  and  biodiesel  as  liquid  fuels,  and combined heat  and power (CHP) production from  energy crop. For  a  given  biofuel  feedstock  several  issues  require  careful  analysis  : 
(1)  chemical  composition  of the  biomass,  
(2)  cultivation  practices,
(3)  availability  of  land  and  land  use  practices, 
(4)  use  of resources, 
(5)  energy  balance, 
(6)  emission  of  greenhouse  gases,  acidifying  gases  and  ozone depletion  gases,  
(7)  absorption  of  minerals  to  water  and  soil,  
(8)  injection  of  pesticides,  
(9)  soil erosion,  
(10)  contribution  to  biodiversity  and  landscape  value  losses, 
(11)  farm-gate  price  of  the biomass,  
(12)  logistic  cost  (transport  and  storage  of  the  biomass),  
(13)  direct  economic  value  of the  feedstock  taking  into  account  the  co-products, 
(14)  creation  or  maintain  of  employment,  
(15) water requirements  and water availability.
A  biofuel  is  a  fuel  that  immediately  derived  from  living  matter.  It  is  produced  through  modern biological  processes,  such  as  agriculture  and  anaerobic  digestion.  Biofuels  can  be  derived  directly from  plants,  or  indirectly  from  agricultural,  commercial,  domestic,  and/or  industrial  wastes. Renewable  biofuels  generally  involve  contemporary  carbon  fixation,  such  as  those  that  occur  in plants  or  microalgae  through  the  process  of  photosynthesis.  Other  renewable  biofuels  are  made through  the  use  or  conversion  of  biomass.  This  biomass  can  be  converted  to  convenient  energy containing substances  in three  different  ways: 
a.  Thermal  conversion,  
b.  Chemical  conversion, 
c.  Biochemical  conversion.   This  biomass  conversion  can  result  in  fuel  in  solid,  liquid,  or  gas  form.  This  new  biomass  can  also be  used directly for biofuels. Bioethanol  is  an  alcohol  made  by  fermentation,  mostly  from  carbohydrates  produced  in  sugar  or starch  crops  such  as  corn,  sugarcane,  or  sweet  sorghum.  Cellulosic  biomass,  derived  from  nonfood  sources,  such  as  trees  and  grasses,  is  also  being  developed  as  a  feedstock  for  ethanol production.  Ethanol  can  be  used  as  a  fuel  for  vehicles  in  its  pure  form,  but  it  is  usually  used  as  a gasoline  additive  to  increase  octane  and  improve  vehicle  emissions.  Bioethanol  is  widely  used  in the  USA  and in Brazil.   Biodiesel  can  be  used  as  a  fuel  for  vehicles  in  its  pure  form,  but  it  is  usually  used  as  a  diesel additive  to  reduce  levels  of  particulates,  carbon  monoxide,  and  hydrocarbons  from  diesel-powered vehicles.  Biodiesel  is  produced  from  oils  or  fats  using  transesterification  and  is  the  most  common biofuel  in Europe. There  are  various  social,  economic,  environmental  and  technical  issues  relating  to  biofuels production  and  use,  which  have  been  published  in  the  popular  media  and  scientific  journals.  These include:  the  effect  of  moderating  oil  prices,  the  "food  vs  fuel"  debate,  poverty  reduction  potential, carbon  emissions  levels,  sustainable  biofuel  production,  deforestation  and  soil  erosion,  loss  of biodiversity,  impact  on  water  resources,  rural  social  exclusion  and  injustice,  shantytown  migration, rural  unskilled unemployment, and nitrogen dioxide  (NO2) emissions.
Author 
Shivani kumari, Amity University 

Thursday, February 22, 2018

BIO-TOILETS an Introduction

Bio-toilets are based on bio-digester technology which was initially developed by Defence research &Development organization (DRDO) for defence personnel. The enterprise is pioneering this, in integrated approaches and taking this effective  and  innovative Sanitation  solution  to  the  civil population with varying applications.
It is developed by DRDO and called DRDO bacteria that converts human excretory waste into water and gas .Water is subjected to chlorination and then it is discharged outside. It has a very effective impact on environment and environmental-friendly track that creates healthy working condition for railway tracks.There are many issues related to the bio-toilets which pertain to behavior of the passengers.Passengers dispose newspapers,plastic bottles,bags that clog toilets.
India is a place that is known for decent variety where one can witness space rockets conveying correspondence satellites into space and in the meantime manual cleaning of human excreta by foragers. As indicated by the information shared by NSSO (National Sample Survey Office) in December 2013, 59.4 level of provincial India poop in the open. According to the twelfth five year design, 50 percent of the towns must accomplish ODF (open crap free) status by 2017 and 100 rate by 2022. In any case, this target appears to be very hard to accomplish in coming 8 years, in light of the fact that the greater part of the towns of India are now confronting genuine medical issues because of heaps of excreta. Tal ruler particularly about the state of towns in Jharkhand, individuals utilize polythene sheets hung on four bamboo adheres as cover to poo. From a study led by MDWS (Ministry Of Drinking Water and Sanitation), just 40 percent homes in rustic India have toilets while whatever is left of the populace is compelled to pick open poop. This unhygienic practice frequently prompts spreading of irresistible infections, and builds ailment and mortality among the most powerless gathering i.e., youngsters.
All things considered, 113 million provincial family units are living without toilets. To take care of this demand, India needs to build 15.3 million toilets for each year. Be that as it may, the present rate at which the toilets are getting built is just 4 million every year. It implies that aggregate sani tation will get over by 2044 i.e., 20 years more than due date. Along these lines, it is obviously noticeable that there is an immense prerequisite of toilets in the nation which can't be satisfied by recently ebb and flow sorts of toilets which covers pour-flush, water storage room (36.4 %), and pit restroom (9.4%) toilets and others (1.1 %) according to 2011 statistics of India.
Here comes the part of bio-toilets, which are anything but difficult to introduce and financially savvy, and offer natural inviting answer for practical human excreta administration. Bio-toilets not just play out the general capacity of a can, yet in addition change over human excreta into compost which can be utilized as natural manure. This manure is discovered rich in Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P) And Potassiu m (K), and goes about as a dirt conditioner. A bio-can chiefly comprises of a latrine bowl, fertilizing the soil reactor, ventilation, and blending instrument (Figure-I). In the bio-can, defecation pee is blended with sawdust in a reactor chamber and this blend is disintegrated by oxygen consuming microscopic organisms bringing about arrangement of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O). The water is vanished by the compound warmth which discharges in the process disintegration of natural materials. In the interim, mineralized results of natural waste, for example, Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P) And Potassium (K) stayed in the saw clean. After the bio-can is utilized for a half year, the lingering sawdust is gathered and can be utilized for natural cultivating and biogas era.
The primary rule of bio-toilets is that is a bacteriological framework for discarding human waste. In the treatment tank the human waste and water blend enters and artical " microscopic organisms booster"(micro culture) grow more number of microbes which is persistently separated the strong human waste into the fluid which deplete with water, after appropriate synthetic treatment(CI) to slaughter the microorganisms in the water. The Bacteria free water is depleted to the track bed in the middle of Rails, the different gases(primary CO)developed while concoction response in a depleted created to the tank vents.
Bio-toilet system depend upon the human excretory waste disposal mechanism which reduces solid human waste to biogas like methane and pure water with the help of anaerobic bacteria inoculum . The human waste is treated in a digester tank using specific high graded bacteria.This technology was initially developed by Defence research &Development organization (DRDO) for defence personnel. Water is undergo to chlorination and then discharged into environment . This effect will be clear and environmental -friendly spaces and specially railway tracks in India.
In that project are two doors in tank, the one input door and second exit door. The input door is on top of the tank and exit door is assembling inside the tank. The doors open and close by using pneumatic cylinder. Pneumatic cylinder is control by using RPM controller, Proximity sensor, and Compressed air tank.  So, whole system is controlled with train speed. If the train speeds exceed 30 km/h then exit door will open and total waste depositor drop in tracks and input door is close. Input door is open when train is under 30 km/h speed.
Corresponding author.                         SHREYA TYAGI, AMITY UNIVERSITY  

Sunday, February 18, 2018

Working Human Skeletal Muscle developed in Laboratory


Scientists from  Duke University in North Carolina, US for first time have developed working human skeletal muscle from stem cells in the laboratory
Stem cells
Stem cells are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells and can divide to produce more stem cells. They are found in multicellular organisms. In mammals, there are two broad types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Embryonic stem cells can be isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts and adult stem cells are found in various tissues which can act as a repair system for the body, replenishing adult tissues.
Key Facts
Scientists had developed human skeletal muscle using adult skin or blood cells that were reprogrammed into a juvenile, versatile state. These cells were induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) which can become any other type of human cell like naturally-occurring stem cells found in embryos.
In this case, the iPSCs were coaxed into becoming skeletal muscle cells. The breakthrough was made possible by unique cell culture conditions in lab and special 3-D scaffold which allowed cells to grow much faster and longer.
The tissue contracted and reacted to external stimuli such as electrical pulses or chemical signals. It was also implanted into adult mice, where it survived and functioned for at least three weeks.
Significance
The development is breakthrough that holds promise for sufferers of degenerative muscular diseases. This technique will allow scientists to grow endless amount of functioning muscle in lab to test to test drugs and gene treatments for degenerative diseases.

Friday, February 16, 2018

Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)

SCNT is a laboratory technique for creating an ovum with donor nucleus. In it, nucleus containing the organism’s DNA of somatic cell (a body cell other than sperm or egg cell) is removed and rest of cell discarded. The nucleus of somatic cell is then inserted into enucleated egg cell which reprograms somatic cell nucleus by the host cell. The egg, now containing nucleus of somatic cell, is stimulated with a shock and will begin to divide forming blastocyst (an early stage embryo with about 100 cells) with almost identical DNA to original organism. It can be used in embryonic stem cell research, regenerative medicine i.e. “therapeutic cloning.” It can also be used as first step in process of reproductive cloning. Reproductive cloning occurs by implanting SCNT derived blastocyst into the uterus of a surrogate mother where the embryo develops into fetus. Mouse, Monkey and Human embryonic stem cells can be created using SCNT. This technique was used to create first cloned mammal, Dolly the sheep. 

Advantage 

  1. It can be used to produce stem cells. 
  2. It has the potential to produce extinct species e.g cells collected from wooly mammoth could be used as nuclear donors for enucleated elephant eggs. This has been proved by an experiment on mice. Mice were cloned using somatic cell nuclei derived from mouse that had been frozen for more than 15 years. 
  3. SCNT can be used to generate exact copies of cells to be used for tissue and organs for a patient in need. If this is accomplished, it could potentially eliminate the desperate need for donor organs around the world. 
  4. If SCNT were to be mastered by humans, it could assist in treating diseases associated with mitochondrial dna. This is because the nucleus of a somatic cell burdened with one of these diseases and that undergoes somatic cell nuclear transfer prevents mitochondrial dna mutations. 

Disadvantage

  1. It is inefficient process with majority of studies reporting between 0.5-5% develop correctly. Loss of fetuses and young occur throughout gestation,  at birth and following birth with a range of developmental abnormalities being reported. Reasons for these abnormalities occuring is unknown but may reflect incomplete or inappropriate reprogramming.
  2. There is a high fetal death rate when SCNT is used on an embryo in any organism. 
  3. The clones are not exact copy (100% copy)  of desired or donor species as it contains the cytoplasmic traits of eggs. 

Thursday, February 15, 2018

GREEN CHEMISTRY

Pharmaceuticals Industries are using toxic chemicals and extra difficult process which produces comparatively a large amount harmful substance. These harmful substances cause bad impact on surroundings and nature. The approach of Green chemistry provides environmentally friendly way to replace harmful solvents and technologies, so prevent pollution. Green Chemistry concept The green chemistry has emerged as research program in the US which arises from collaborative efforts of university unit, self-governing research crowed, business, technical community and legislative agencies, to decreasing pollution. The new approach introduces in green chemistry synthesis, dealing out and relevance of chemical material in such a way as to minimize the risk to environment and health of human. This advanced access is as well called:
1. Eco-friendly chemistry

2. Clean chemistry
3. Atom wealth
4. Benign design chemistry
Green chemistry involves 12 set of values projected by Anastas and Warner. The green chemistry gives directions to expert chemists to execute new substance, modern production and modern scientific processes.The main idea to protect the environment green chemistry is generated from first principle. Whereas 11 principles are paying attention to make environment eco-friendly.

 1. PRINCIPLES OF GREEN CHEMISTRY 

Green science is an exceedingly compelling way to deal with contamination aversion as it applies creative logical answers for certifiable natural circumstances. The accompanying 12 standards of Green Chemistry give an approach to scientific experts to execute green chemistry.

(a)Waste Control - It is perfect to forestall squander than to take care of waste after it has been produced.

(b) Atom effectiveness- Engineered planning must intended to enhance the all supplies utilized as element of procedure into product.
 (c) Application of non- destructive of reagents-This incorporates the utilization of reagents and manufactured strategies that decreases the hazard and delivers eco-accommodating items that has no awful effect on human and atmosphere.
(d) Safer Chemicals Scheming-Chemicals and reagents should accomplish their coveted ability while limiting their harmfulness.
(e) Safer Solvents and Auxiliaries -Broadly utilized solvents in unions are lethal and unstable – liquor, benzene (known cancercausing), CCl4, CHCl3, perchloroethylene, CH2Cl2. These have now been supplanted by more secure green solvents.
(f) Design for Energy Efficiency-Vitality requirements of synthetic procedures must perceive for their ecological and monetary effects and should to be limited.
(g) Use of Renewable Feed stocks-It is wanted to use crude materials and feedstock that are sustainable, however in fact and monetarily practicable. Referring to the case of sustainable feedstock which incorporate agrarian items and exhausting feedstock incorporate crude supplies that are extracted from non-renewable energy sources (oil, gaseous petrol or coal).
(h) Shorter combinations -Superfluous derivatization should be limited or managed a strategic space if possible and such strides require additional reagents and can produce squander.
(i) Use of Catalytic instead of Stoichiometric reagents -Impetuses are utilized as a part of little sums and can complete a solitary response commonly as are desirable over stoichiometric reagents, which are utilized as a part of overabundance and work. This will improve the selectivity, lessen the temperature of a change, diminish waste produced by reagent and conceivably keep away from undesirable side responses prompting a spotless innovation
(j) Design for dreadful conditions -Compound items ought to be planned so that toward the finish of their capacity they separate into harmless corruption items and don't hold on in nature.
(k)Techniques to control pollution -Different techniques require developing for actual-time, in-process monitoring and control formation of hazardous substances.
(l) Use of Safer Chemicals and Process -Substances and the form of a substance used in a chemical process should be chosen so as to minimize the potential of chemical accidents, including releases, explosions, and fires.

2. APPLICATIONS OF CLEAN CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY IN LIFE

2. Eco-Friendly Dry clean-up of Clothes -Perchloroethylene (PERC) used for dry cleaning pollutes water resource and cancer-causing agent. To solve this problem Joseph De Simons, Timothy Romark, and James synthesized Micell which is made up of liquid CO2 and a surfactant for cleaning garments. Cleaning machines have now been produced utilizing this procedure. Micell Technology has likewise developed a metal cleaning framework that utilizations CO2 and a surfactant accordingly dispensing with the need of halogenated solvents.
2.2 Solution to Turn Turbid Water Clear -Tamarind seed kernel powder, discarded as agriculture waste, is a good agent to create municipal and industrial waste water clear. the current follow is to use Al-salt to treat such water. it's been found that alum will increasepoisonous ions in treated water and will cause diseases like Alzheimer’s. On the opposite hand kernel powder is not- poisonous and is perishable and price effective. For the study, four flocculants specifically tamarind seed kernel powder, mixture of the powder and starch, starch ad alum were used. Flocculants with slurries were ready by combining measured quantity of clay and water.The result showed aggregation of the powder and suspended particles were a lot of porous and allowed water to exudate and become compact a lot of simply and shaped larger volume of clear water. Starch flocks on the opposite hand were found to be light-weight weight and fewer porous and thus didn’t enable water to taste it simply. The study establishes the powder’s potential as associate degree economic flocculants with performance shut more matured flocculants like K2SO4Al2(SO4)3.24H2O (potash alum).

2.3 Solar Array -One of the best known examples of green technology would be the solar cell. A solar cell directly converts the energy in light into electrical energy through the process of photovoltaics. Generating electricity from solar energy means less consumption of fossil fuels, reducing pollution and greenhouse gas emissions.

2.4 Reusable Water Bottle -Another simple invention that can be considered green is the reusable water bottle. Drinking lots of water is healthy. Reducing plastic waste is great for the environment. Hence, trendy reusable water bottles that you can refill yourself are health-promoting, eco-friendly, and green.
2.5 Solar Water Heater -Installing a solar water heater can be a great way to cut down on energy costs at a much lower initial expense. The costs associated with the installation of a solar water heater are actually recouped much faster than the costs associated with photovoltaic technology for power generation. This is due to the increased efficiency of solar water heating systems, as well as their reduced expense when compared to the large solar array required for powering a home.
2.6 Wind Generator -The costs of a home wind generator vary greatly. Some have built their own wind generators with off-the-shelf parts from their local hardware stores. Others have purchased kits or paid for professional installation to supplement the power purchased from their local electrical grid. The power production capability of a home wind generator varies about as much as the initial expense. Many kit based generators will produce only enough power to offset 10-15% of your Home energy costs.

 2.7 Rainwater Harvesting System -Rain collector systems are extremely simple mechanical systems that connect to a gutter system or other rooftop water collection network and store rain water in a barrel or cistern for later non-potable use (like watering plants, flushing toilets, and irrigation). These systems are extremely inexpensive.
 2.8 Insulation of House -Based on EPA estimates, 10% of household energy usage a year is due to energy loss from poor insulation. We will get an excellent return on investment from sealing our home to prevent energy escape.
 2.9 Building with Green Technology -Green buildings use a variety of environmentally friendly techniques to reduce their impact on the environment. Reclaimed materials, passive solar design, natural ventilation and green roofing technology can allow builders to produce a structure with a considerably smaller carbon footprint than normal construction. These techniques not only benefit the environment, but they can produce economically attractive buildings that are healthier for the occupants as well. The chief benefit of building green is reducing a building’s impact on the environment. Using green building techniques can also reduce the costs associated with construction and operation of a building. Green ventilation techniques involve open spaces and natural airflow, reducing the need for traditional air conditioning and preventing many of these problems.


 3. POTENTIAL OF GREEN CHEMISTRY

3.1 Oxidation chemical agent and contact action -Several of the oxidization reagents and catalysts are comprised of nephrotoxic substances like significant metals. Since these substances were typically employed in very massive volumes needed to convert numerous pounds of petrochemicals, there was a major inheritance of those metals being discharged to the setting and having substantial negative impact on human health and setting. It may be modified by the utilization of benign substances.

 3.2 Biometric multifunctional reagents -Whereas artificial contact action and reagents for the foremost half have targeted on concluding one distinct transformation. The manipulations could embrace activation, conformational changes, and one or many actual transformations and derivitizations.
3.3 Combinatorial inexperienced chemistry -The chemistry of having the ability to create massive numbers of chemical compounds chop-chop on a little scale exploitation reaction matrices.The instance is lead that incorporates a massive no of derivatives. This chemistry has enabled massive no of gear to be created and their properties assessed while not the magnitude of the consequences of waste disposal.
3.4 Energy focus -The environmental impact of energy usage square measure profound however haven't been as visible and as direct as a number of the hazards that haven't been expose by materials employed in manufacture, use and disposal of chemicals. The advantage of contact action is dramatic in chemical science. there's a requirement to style substances and materials that square measure effective, economical and cheap at the capture, storage and transportation.
3.5 Proliferation of solvent less reactions -One in every of the 'solvent alternatives' that's being: it's one in every of the solvent alternatives that's being developed in inexperienced chemistry is that of solvent less reaction system. The carrying of producing method in solvent-less condition utilizes some non-traditional conditions. This helps in development of product isolation, separation and purification that may be solventless yet so as to maximise.
3.6 Supramolecular chemistry -Analysis is presently current within the space of supramolecular chemistry to generate reactions which may proceed in the solid phase without use of solvents. The cyclic addition of trans-1,2- bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene is directed by phenol within the solid state. This solid-state reaction take within the presence of ultraviolet {light|ultraviolet illumination|UV|actinic radiation|actinic ray} light in 100 percent yield.

Monday, February 12, 2018

In Vitro Fertilization and Test tube baby

Britain’s fertility regulator Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) has allowed doctors to create country’s first ‘three-parent’ babies through mitochondrial donation therapy (or MRT). This move is aimed at preventing passage of incurable genetic diseases from mothers to offsprings.
Key Facts
HEFA has approved procedures to be applied on two women in the city of Newcastle in northeast England. The procedure will use MRT for the women, having neurodegenerative disorder genes which causes problem with movement or mental functioning.It will create first three parent baby in UK within a year.
Mitochondrial Replacement Therapy (MRT)
MRT or Mitochondrial donation is medical technique in which defective mitochondria carried by a woman is replaced with the healthy mitochondria of a donor. Through invitro fertilization technique (IVF), the egg is then fertilised with the partner’s sperm. Thus the embryo remains free from any such defects. The two most common techniques in mitochondrial donation are maternal spindle transfer and pronuclear transfer. UK was first country to officially pass law to allow three parent baby. But procedure was successfully tested in Mexico, giving birth to world’s first three parent baby in September 2016.
Benefits
  • It will prevent transmission of mitochondrial (genetic) disease from one generation to the next.
  • It will give parents chance of having a child that is over 99% genetically matched to them and most importantly free of the mitochondrial disease.
  • It has no impact on personality or looks of the offspring from third DNA set, as surrogate mitochondrial DNA is separate from core DNA in cells.

Human Eggs Are now Developed in Lab

Scientists from Britain and United States for first time have succeeded in growing human eggs in laboratory from earliest stages in ovarian tissue all way to full maturity. This is the first time human eggs have been developed outside the human body from their earliest stage to full maturity.
Key Facts
Using this technique in previous studies, scientists had developed mouse eggs in laboratory to stage where they produced live offspring, and also matured human eggs from a relatively late stage of development. The technology remains at early stage, and much more work is needed to make sure that it is safe and optimised before these eggs remain normal during process, and can be fertilised to form embryos that could lead to birth of healthy babies.
Significance
This technique widens scope of available fertility treatments. It can help in developing regenerative medicine therapies and new infertility treatments. It can help cancer patients wishing to preserve their fertility while undergoing chemotherapy treatment, improve fertility treatments, and deepen scientific understanding of the biology of the earliest stages of human life.

Saturday, February 10, 2018

In Vitro Fertilization

                               INTRODUCTION  TO  IVF
 The  term  in  vitro  means  in  glass or  in  artificial  conditions  and  IVF  refers  to  the  fact  that fertilization  of  egg  by sperm  had  occurred  not  in  uterus  but  outside  the  uterus  at  artificially maintained  optimum  condition.  The  IVF  technology  has  revolutionized  the  field  of  animal biotechnology  because  a  production  of  more  and  more  animals  as  compared  to  animal production  through  normal  course.  For  an  example  an  animal  produces  about  6-8  offspring’s but  through  the  IVF  technology  it  produces  about  50-60  offspring’s in  her  life  time,  so  the  IVF technology  holds  a  great  promise  because  a  large  no.  of  animals  in  same  duration  of  life  by maintaining  the  gene  pool  of  animal  population. In  India  M.L.    Madan,  animal  embryo-biotechnologist  at  National  dairy  Research  Institute, karnal  (Haryana)  has  got  the  success  in  producing  more  calves  in  cows.
HOW  IVF IS  ACHIEVED 
The  IVF  technology  is  very  useful  it  involves  the  following  protocols:
   Taking  out the  eggs  from  ovaries  of  female  donor.
  In vitro  maturation of  egg  cultures  kept  in  an  incubator.
  Fertilization  of  eggs  in  test  tubes  by  semen obtained  from  super  male.
   Implantation  of  seven  days  old  embryo  in  reproductive  tract  of  other  recipient  female which  acts  as  surrogate  mother.    (The  surrogate  mother  does  not  contribute  in  anything in  terms  of  genetic  makeup  since  the  same  comes  from  the  egg  of  donor  mother  and semen  from  artificial  insemination.)
NEED  OF IVF TECHNOLOGY 
  IVF  is  one  of  several  assisted  reproductive  techniques  (ART) used  to  help  infertile couples  to  conceive  a  child.
          CAUSES  OF  INFERTILITY
 If after  one  year  of  having  sexual  intercourse  without  the  use  of  birth control  a  woman  is  unable  to  get  pregnant,  infertility is  suspected.  Some  major  reasons for  infertility are  damaged  or  blocked  fallopian  tubes,  hormonal  imbalance  or endometriosis in the  woman.  In  the  man,  low sperm  count  or  poor  quality sperm  can cause  infertility.
   IVF  is  one  of  several  possible  methods  to  increase  the  chance  for  an  infertile  couple  to become  pregnant.
  IVF  will  not  work  for  a  woman  who  is  not  capable  of  ovulating  or  a  man  who  is  not  able to  produce  at  least  a  few healthy  sperm.   

TECHNIQUES  USED IN  IVF TO  INCREASE  ITS  SUCCESS 
1.  ASSISTED  HATCHING 
Sometimes  viable  embryos  do  not  implant  in  uterine  wall  simply  because  they  are unable  to  break  free  from  their  surrounding  “jelly coat”  called  zona  pellucida.  The assisted  hatching  performed  in  lab  right  before  embryo  transfer  using  a  laser  to  create  a hole  in  the  zona.  This  allows  the  embryo  to  hatch  and  make  contact  with  the  lining  of the  uterus  and  implant.
2.  INTRACYTOPLASMIC  SPERM  INJECTION
In  this  technique,  a  single  sperm  is  injected  into  the  cytoplasm  (interior) of  the  egg. Today  the  use  of  ICSI  is  now  routinely  applied  to  a  wide  range  of  clinical  situations whenever  there  is  a  possibility  that  fertilization  may  not  occur.  Such  situations  may include  unexplained  infertility  or  when  frozen  sperm  samples  survive  their  selves  poorly.
3.  FREEZE  ALL  EMBRYOS  IVF  CYCLE 
In  the  past  it  is  preferred  to  perform  fresh  embryo  transfers  for  most  patients  because the  embryos  had  a  better  chance  of  implanting  and  developing  into  a  baby then  frozen embryos  did.  However  over  the  past  several  years  vitrificaton  techniques  for  freezing and  thawing  embryos  have  improved  so  much  that  frozen  embryos  now  have  an  equal or  perhaps  better  chance  of  implanting  than  fresh  embryos.  When  there  is  a  planned “freeze  all  embryos”  IVF  cycle  the  developing  embryos  are  frozen  via  vitrificaton  and stored  until  they  are  transferred  at  a  later  time.  This  technique  is  especially beneficial for  woman  at  a  risk  of  hyper  ovarian  stimulation  caused  by  the  medications  used  to produce  multiple  eggs  during  the  cycle.
 4.  PREIMPLANTATION  GENETIC  SCREENING(PGS)
 PGS  help  us  to  answer  the  questions  of  which  embryos  have  the  greatest  potential  to become  a  healthy pregnancy.  PGS  gives  the  patient  two  advantages  first  it  gives  us  to  be 99% certain  the  embryos  have  the  correct  number  of  chromosomes  thereby increasing the  chance  for  a  healthy  pregnancy.  Second  I  allows  the  patient  to  transfer  only  one embryo  thereby  decreasing  the  chance  of  twins  (  which  have  much  higher  rate  of complications). 
  Bibliography
Dr.  John  Storment  ,  medical  director  at  fertility  answers,  US
www.createfertility.co.uk