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Showing posts with label IMMUNOLOGY. Show all posts
Showing posts with label IMMUNOLOGY. Show all posts


Gene Therapy | Medical Evolution

Now a days it is being focused on the functionality and the speciality of genes to use them as precursor of antipeptides, so in case of any disorder no need to give antipeptides externally. Gene therapy is an emerging technique in which genes are preferred to treat or prevent the disorders inspite of using drugs and surgery’s. Researchers are testing possible approaches to gene therapy including,Replacing a mutated or defective gene that causes disease with a healthy copy of the gene, Inactivating, or “knocking out,” a mutated gene that is functioning improperly,Introducing a new gene which produces the anti effectives into the body to help fight a disease. Although gene therapy is a promising treatment option for a number of diseases like  inherited disorders, some types of cancer, and on certain viral infections, But this technique remains risky and is still under study to make sure that it will be safer and effective. Gene therapy is currently being tested only for diseases that have no other cures.


Genes are the basic inheritance and regulatory molecules which commands the cell via expressing themselves in terms of proteins. Therapy with using genes is  a  novel  treatment method  in which    genes  or  short  oligonucleotide sequences  used as  therapeutic  molecules, instead of  using conventional  drug compounds and surgery’s . This technique  is  widely  used to treat  those  defective  genes  which are responsible in the development of diseases [1,2]. The treatment is better and preferred over conventional drugs methods [2]. Our genetic program is made up of thousand of genes, stretches of DNA, that generally code for different proteins that do particular jobs in the cells in our body. The idea of using drugs and antipeptides is replaced by gene therapy, as the genes express them selves in terms of peptides [3]. 


The first idea of gene therapy was introduced by Theodore Friedmann and Richard Roblin during 1960’s. They are the first who gave the concept of treatment via introducing a particular gene which lasts to the next generations [4]. Now we have several gene editing and inserting tools e.g: CRISPR-CAS9,  which may be useful in cancer and viral treatments.


The research and the exploration of inherent molecules such as RNA and DNA gave rise to the concept of treating disorders and syndromes directly by an organism itself for life time.  As the inherent molecules have the capability to transfer generation over generation so transferring the gene of interest is permanent cure for the syndromes and disorders.

  • The genes have the ability to inherit in next generation thus leading to permanent cure for the disorders and syndromes.
  • Gene are the regulatory molecules present in cell so the defective ones can be removed which results in the permanent cure with no further medication.


  1. Bainbridge, J. W. B.;  Smith, A.  J.;  Barker, S. S.;  Robbie, S.;  Henderson, R.;  Balaggan, K.;  Viswanathan, A.;  Holder, G. E. et  al. (2008). "Effect  of  Gene  Therapy  on Visual Function in  Leber's  Congenital  Amaurosis". New  England Journal  of  Medicine  358 (21): 2231–2239.   
  2. Genetic Science Learning Center. (2012, December 1) What is Gene Therapy?. Retrieved January 30, 2018, from
  3. Shalini Jaiswal*, 2Gautam Singh, Jawwad Husain2  1Assistant Professor, Chemistry Department, AMITY University, Noida Campus, India.  2Biotechnology Department, AMITY University, Noida Campus, India. *Corresponding author’s E-mail:  “Mechanism and Antimicrobial Application of Histatin 5, Defensin and  Cathelicidin Peptides Derivatives”
  4. Theodore Friedmann and Richard Roblin  "Gene therapy for human genetic disease?" 1972 Mar 3;175(4025):949-55


Venom or Poison |

Venom and poison both are similar words but biologically they  are different. Many people thinks about venom and poison same thing here are the difference between them :


It is a natural poison secreted by reptiles and some other creatures. Venom is poisonous when it is injected in bloodstream only it never harm when eaten or drink through mouth. Venom is less harmful than artificial poisons and its effects and symptoms are slow to increase. Venom contains several enzymes or enzyme blocking parts which when comes in contact with blood stops the functionality of blood.
However some snakes have very dangerous venom like cobra and other related species but they can also be cured there anti-venoms have been developed. However survival rate is quite low because the patient can't be taken hospital within an hour. 


It may be artificial or natural but in most of dangerous poison they are artificially made. They are much more toxic than venoms.  Their effect is too quick and fast. Some poisons are too much dangerous that they kill eventually when come contact with the person's inner part. Poison is harmful in both cases when comes in contact with bloodstream or in mouth.  Poison is designed to work on the metabolic pathways. Metabolic activities occur in every part of human body so wherever it will present start affecting.

Remember a person can be saved when he/she is infected with venom, by poison still hard to save. 


Lymphocytes | Guardians of Immunity

Lymphocytes are the White Blood Cells also called as Leukocytes. Which comprises of Natural Killer cells B and T cells. These are very important for maintaining the immune system because these are the cells which fight against,  identify and kill the infectious micro-organisms and other foreign substances. Bone marrow constantly produces cells that will become lymphocytes. Some will enter in bloodstream, but most will move through  lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is the group of tissues and organs, like the spleen, tonsils, and lymph nodes, that protect our body from infection. About 25 percent of the new lymphocytes remain in the bone marrow and become B cells. The other 75 percent travel to  thymus and become T cells.

The two main types of lymphocytes are known as T and B cells. These two types of lymphoid cells are developed and differentiated in the primary lymphoid organs. For example, T cells are developed in the thymus, where as the B lymphocytes are differentiated in the adult bone marrow and fetal liver. In birds, B cells are differentiated in the bursa of Fabricius. Further more, in the primary lymphoid organs T and B cells precursors acquire the ability for recognizing antigens through the development of specific surface receptors. NK- cells do not express antigen receptors on their cell membranes. They are capable to lyse certain tumor cell lines in vitro without being sensitized. NK cells are large granular lymphocytes (LGLs) Lymphocytes are produced in the primary lymphoid organs (thymus and adult bone marrow) at a high rate 109 per day. Some of these cells migrate to the blood circulation via the secondary lymphoid tissues (spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue). The average human adult has about 1012 lymphoid cell, and approximately 2% of the body weight is a lymphoid tissues. Lymphoid cells represent about 20% of the total leukocytes population in the adult circulation. Many mature lymphoid cells are long-lived, and may persist as a memory cells for several years, or even for the live time of the individual. 

Availability of Lymphocytes in the Body 

  • Lymphocytes in the Blood Stream  
  • Lymphocytes Outside the Bloodstream, in the Lymph vessels   
  • Lymphocytes in the Lymph Nodes

What lymphocytes do in the body ?

There are actually many differences between B-cells and T-cells, even though they are both lymphocytes. B-cells and T-cells are associated with different parts of the immune system. One part of the immune system—the more B-cell dominant part—is focused on making antibodies that can bind to foreign invaders and lead to their destruction. The other part of the immune system—the more T-cell dominant part—is focused on recognizing the invaders and then directly killing them, through a very specific recognition sequence that leads to cell-to-cell battle. These two different turfs or part are described by specific terms. The artillery, or the antibody-producing side, is known as humoral immunity. The infantry, or the cell-to-cell battle side, is known as cell-mediated immunity.
B-cells are the cells that come to mind when thinking about antibodies, or humoral immunity, and T-cells are the cells that come to mind when thinking about cell-to-cell combat, cytotoxicity, or so-called cell-mediated immunity. In reality, there is often cooperation between B-cells and T-cells, just as there is coordination between those who fire the mortars and the infantry.
B-cells mature in the bone marrow and move to the lymph nodes. B-cells become plasma cells or memory cells when foreign antigens activate them; most B-cells become antibody-producing plasma cells; only some remain as memory cells. Memory B-cells help ensure that if the enemy is encountered again in the future, the mortars are prepared. Plasma cells can be found in lymph nodes and elsewhere in the body, where they work to produce large volumes of antibodies. Once antibodies are released into the blood and lymph, these antibody molecules bind to the target antigen to begin the process of neutralizing or destroying the foreign agent.
T-cells mature in the thymus and differentiate into different types. There are several types of T cells, including the following:
Cytotoxic T cells find and directly attack foreigners such as bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells.
Helper T cells recruit other immune cells and organize an immune response.
Regulatory T cells are thought to suppress the immune system so that it doesn't overreact (as it does in autoimmune diseases), however central aspects of the biology of these cells remain shrouded in mystery and continue to be hotly debated.
Natural killer T (NKT) cells are not the same thing as natural killer cells, but they do have similarities. NKT cells are cytotoxic T cells that need to be pre-activated and differentiate to do their work. Natural killer (NK) cells and NKT cells are subsets of lymphocytes that share common ground. Both can rapidly respond to the presence of tumor cells and participate in anti-tumor immune responses.
Memory T cells remember markers on the surface of bacteria, viruses, or cancer cells that they have seen before.

Difference between B and T cell
S.No B Cell T Cell
1. Responsible for humoral immunity  Responsible for cell mediated immunity 
2. Life span is short  Life span is long 
3. Differentiate inside bone marrow  Differentiate inside thymus gland 
4. Surface antibodies present  Absence of surface antibodies 
5. Transformed into plasma cells by antigens  Transformed in small lymphocytes by antigens 
6. Secrete antibodies  Secrete Lymphokines
7. Sub population are memory cells and plasma cells  Sub population are cytotoxic T,  Helper cells and Suppressor cells 
8. B-Cells or B-lymphocytes produce antibodies  Stimulates phagocytes and B cells in to activity


CATHELICIDINS an antimicrobial peptide

Cathelicidins, a group of peptides having 100 amino acid domains that is habitually proteolytically divided from the exceedingly variable C-terminal antimicrobial domain. In phagocytes, the cathelicidins are usually put away as latent antecedents in secretory granules. Much of the time, the preparing protein is neutrophil elastase contained in a different arrangement of capacity granules. Amid phagocytosis, this twofold framework consolidates to create dynamic antimicrobial peptides. A wealth of evidence exists to suggest cathelicidin's crucial role as an antimicrobial in the protection of epithelial surfaces, particularly the skin. The clinical significance of cathelicidins antimicrobial activity can be seen in patients with Kostmann's syndrome, a rare genetic condition resulting in severe neutropenia. Cathelicidins are precursors of many novel peptides. Cathelicidin-derived antimicrobial peptides range in length from 12 to about 100 residues, and include α-helical peptides, e.g. human LL-37/hCAP18 and pig PMAP-37 ; linear peptides with one or two predominant amino acids, e.g. the bovine Pro- and Arg-rich Bac5 and Bac7  and the Trp-rich indolicidin ; and peptides with one or two disulfide bonds, e.g. bovine cyclic dodecapeptide  and pig protegrins The general lead of the component activating Cathelicidin activity, similar to that of other antimicrobial peptides, includes the breaking down (harming and puncturing) of cell layers of creatures toward which the peptide is dynamic. Cathelicidins don't follow up on solid host cell layer. Collaboration of cationic peptides and contrarily charged lipid films of microorganisms empower their precise, parallel bond and mooring, and killing the layer charge. Changing of the auxiliary and tertiary structure of the peptide changes its opposite introduction, in this way inserting in the lipid bilayer and making transmembrane pores. In its activity against Gram– negative microscopic organisms, the peptide can move over the external film, and in the wake of passing the layer of peptidoglycan, crosses the inward film into the cytoplasm of the bacterial cell. Cathelicidin has also proven to be effective against viral infections including herpes simplex virus, vaccinia virus, and fungal infections.


DEFENSINS An Antimicrobial Peptide

Defensins are small cysteinerich cationic proteins found in both vertebrates and invertebrates. They have also been reported in plants.  Also they are assorted individuals from a substantial group of cationic host Defense peptides (HDP), generally dispersed all through the plant and creature kingdoms. Defensins and Defensin-like peptides are practically different, disturbing microbial layers and going about as ligands for cellular recognition and signaling. They function as, host defense peptides. They are active against bacteria, fungi and many enveloped and non-enveloped viruses. They consist of 18-45 amino acids including six (in vertebrates) to eight conserved cysteine residues. These (Defensin) are especially plentiful and generally dispersed antimicrobial peptides described by a cationic β-sheet rich amphipathic structure balanced out by a preserved three-disulfide motif. They extend in measure from 29 to 47 amino acids, and are bottomless in numerous vertebrate granulocytes, Paneth cells (specific granule-rich intestinal host guard cells), and on epithelial surfaces. Like the more straightforward magainins and protegrins, defensins likewise shape pores in target films. There is confirming that the permeabilization of target cells is nonlethal unless taken after by Defensin passage into the cell and extra intracellular harm. AMP productions might be both constitutive and inducible. Defensin biosynthesis is specially activated by atomic structures related with pathogens of irresistible operators and furthermore by cytokines. Animals and human alpha and beta defensins separated in 1980th are additionally subdivided into various subtypes. There are numerous subtypes of alpha and beta defensins (e.g., αdef1; αdef3; αdef4; αdef6; βdef1; βdef2; βdef4, and so forth.); in multicellular living beings they assume comparable anti-infection parts against microorganisms, organisms, and even some infections The tadefensins (Θ) have been as of late found in a few individuals from the set of all animals. These antibacterial peptides go about as commit porins on the bacterial cell divider. Not at all like the insects and mammalian defensins, are which for the most part dynamic against bacteria. Plant defensins, with a couple of exemptions, don't have antibacterial movement. Most plant defensins are engaged with resistance against an expansive scope of organisms.  They are not just dynamic against phytopathogenic growths, (for example, Fusarium culmorum and Botrytis cinerea), yet additionally against cook's yeast and human pathogenic organisms, (for example, Candida albicans. Plant defensins have likewise been appeared to hinder the development of roots and root hairs in Arabidopsis thaliana and change development of different tomato organs which can expect numerous capacities identified with safeguard and advancement. 


MALACIDINS a new class of antibiotics

Researchers from The Rockefeller University have discovered a new class of antibiotics capable of killing off several antibiotic-resistant pathogens. This new family comes from molecules present in a large variety of soils and researchers hope it could be a useful weapon in our medical arsenal.
As reported in Nature Microbiology, the antibiotic compounds are a special class of peptides – special chains of amino acids – which require calcium for antibacterial activity. Calcium-dependent antibiotics are capable of targeting bacteria in a variety of ways and this characteristic makes them particularly effective. They can target the formation of the bacterial cell membrane or even destroy the cell wall.
The team looked for new members of this antibiotic family and tested them against known pathogens. The new antibiotics, called malacidins, were successful in sterilizing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, also known as the superbug MRSA, and the bacteria attacked with the malacidins did not develop resistance.

The new family of antibiotics comes from molecules present in large variety of soils. Scientists had analysed more than 1000 unique soil samples across US to better understand how new class of antibiotics is produced and how it can be exploited for fighting bacteria. They had used DNA information that encodes production of antibiotic in daptomycin to study it. This discovery could be a useful weapon in field of medicines.


Malacidins are distinctive class of antibiotics that are commonly encoded in soil microbiomes. They have never been reported in culture-based NP (Natural Products) discovery efforts.
Malacidins are active against multidrug-resistant pathogens, sterilise methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus  (MRSA) skin infections in animal wound model and did not select for resistance in laboratory conditions.
The malacidins was tested on rats with MRSA skin infections. The condition was cured, and even after 20 days of continued contact with malacidins, the rodents did not experience any side effects.


Malacidins only target gram-positive bacteria with a very thick cell wall. It is ineffective against gram-negative bacteria which cause cholera, pneumonia, sexually transmitted diseases, and plague. Thus, it does not make it universal cure against all bacteria.


Application of Histatin 5 Derivative, Defensin and Cathelicidin Peptides as Antimicrobial Agents (Amps)


Microbial Resistance Mechanism from Peptides

Protection from AMPs by a touchy strain of microorganism is improbable due to their incredible decent variety and the way that they have been powerful against bacterial contaminations for no less than 108 years. In any case, a few pathogens are more impervious to AMPs and others are more touchy. For instance, safe types of such sorts as Serratia and Morganella have an external layer lacking the proper thickness of the acidic lipids which are peptide restricting destinations. Other safe species, for example, Porphyromonas gingivalis discharge stomach related proteases that annihilate the peptide. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) are fundamental mixes of the antimicrobial weapons stores in practically a wide range of life forms, with imperative parts in microbial nature and higher organism's host defense. Numerous microscopic organisms have created countermeasures to constrain the viability of CAMPs, for example, defensins, Cathelicidins, kinocidins, or bacteriocins. The best-considered bacterial CAMP protection components include electrostatic repulsions of CAMPs by change of cell envelope particles, proteolytic cleavage of CAMPs, creation of CAMP-catching proteins, or expulsion of CAMPs by vitality subordinate efflux pumps. The collection of CAMPs created by a given host living being and the productivity of microbial CAMP protection components seem, by all accounts, to be significant in have pathogen cooperation’s, administering the structure of commensal microbial groups and the destructiveness of bacterial pathogens. Be that as it may, all CAMP protection instruments have constraints and microbes have never prevailing with regards to ending up completely inhumane to a wide scope of CAMPs. CAMPs or preserved CAMP protection factors are talked about as new middle people and targets, individually, of novel and supportable hostile to infective systems. 



Mechanism of Peptides Derivatives Anti peptides or proteins are the inhibitory factors or proteins which are being designed to inhibit the function of defective ones. A striking component among antimicrobial peptides as a gathering is their general preservation of structure and charge topics crosswise over assorted phyla. Regardless of whether combined non-ribosomal with d-and l-amino acids, or from hereditarily encoded messenger RNA, antimicrobial peptides frame amphipathic structures and are frequently cationic at physiological pH. The amphipathicity and net charge are qualities justifiably moderated among numerous antimicrobial peptides. Besides, charge liking is likely an imperative means presenting selectivity to antimicrobial peptides. With regards to these ideal models, the accompanying exchange features momentum ideas identifying with the atomic premise of antimicrobial peptide systems of activity. AMP's Kill cells by upsetting layer respectability (through communication with Negatively charged cell membrane ), by repressing proteins, DNA and RNA union, or by collaborating with certain intracellular targets.   
Be that as it may, the idea that AMPs should be cationic was changed later with the disclosure of adversely charged AMPs in 1997. For instance maximin-H5 from frog skin and dermicidin discharged from sweat organ tissues of human are both anionic peptides. By and large an AMP is just successful against one class of microorganisms (e.g., microbes or growths). Notwithstanding, there are special cases and a few AMPs are known to have diverse methods of activity against diverse sorts of microorganisms.  For instance, indolicidin can eliminate microscopic organisms, parasites, and HIV. They also displays antifungal18 exercises by making harms cell film. Be that as it may, it slaughters E. coli by entering into the phones and hindering DNA amalgamation; and it demonstrates against HIV exercises by restraining HIV-integrase. In correlation; a few AMPs have a similar method of murdering of various cell sorts. For instance, PMAP-23 can execute the two growths and parasites by framing pores in their cell layers. A fundamental necessity for any antimicrobial host safeguard or restorative operator is that it has a specific poisonous quality for the microbial target with respect to the host. In a perfect world, such mixes have fondness for at least one microbial determinant that is effortlessly open, regular to a wide range of organisms, and moderately changeless. Nature has evidently yielded a class of particles that meets these imperatives in the development of antimicrobial peptides. Antimicrobial peptides at first target microbial cells, and consequently satisfy criteria plot above for distinguishing sub-atomic determinants of pathogens that are open and comprehensively saved. 


Antimicrobial Peptide

Peptides (proteins) that are basically hydrophobic and hydrophilic and predominately either anionic or cationic are regularly found to be able to kill organisms or potentially cancer cells. There are an expansive scope of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that have been distinguished from an assortment of life forms have been found to slaughter organisms as well as execute cancer cells. Subsequently numerous AMPs are or conceivably are anticancer peptides (ACPs) .The rapid increase in drug-resistant infections has presented a serious challenge to antimicrobial and anticancer therapies. The capability of peptides in Cancer and microbial treatment is obvious from a wide range of techniques that are accessible to address the movement of tumor and disease development and proliferation of the infection. Utilization of peptides that can specifically target inadequate cells without influencing typical cells (directed treatment or targeted treatment) is advancing as a substitute system to regular chemotherapy. Peptide can be used straightforwardly as a cytotoxic operator through different systems or can go about as a bearer of cytotoxic specialists and radioisotopes by particularly focusing on disease cells. Peptide-based hormonal treatment has been broadly contemplated and used for the treatment of breast and prostate diseases. Gigantic measure of clinical information is as of now accessible authenticating the productivity of peptide-based growth and microbial immunizations. The failure of the most potent antibiotics to kill “superbugs” emphasizes the urgent need to develop other control agents.
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are oligopeptides with a varying number (from five to over a hundred) of amino acids. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are small sub-atomic weight proteins with broad spectrum   antimicrobial action against microscopic organisms like viruses, fungi, and parasites. These developmentally moderated peptides are generally positively charged and have both a hydrophobic and hydrophilic side that empowers the particle to be dissolvable in watery conditions yet likewise enter lipid-rich layers .Once in an objective microbial layer, the peptide kills target cells through differing components. Cathelicidins and defensins are real gatherings of epidermal AMPs. Diminished levels of these peptides have been noted for patients with atopic dermatitis and Kostmann's disorder, an innate neutropenia. Notwithstanding essential antimicrobial properties, developing confirmation demonstrates that AMPs modify the host invulnerable reaction through receptor-subordinate cooperation’s. AMPs have been appeared to be critical in such various capacities as angiogenesis, wound mending, and chemotaxis. As part of our research programme for development of  biologically active compounds here we are discussing the action and mechanism of the antimicrobial activities of peptides. 


Typhoid Vaccine

The World Health Organisation (WHO) has given its pre-qualification to Typbar Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine (TVC) developed by Hyderabad based Bharat Biotech for global use.

Typbar TCV is world’s first typhoid vaccine clinically proven to be administered to children from six months of age to adults, and confers long-term protection against typhoid fever. It has been evaluated in Human Challenge Studies at Oxford University.
The WHO pre-qualification enables procurement and supplies of this life-saving vaccine to UNICEF, Pan-American Health Organisation (PAHO) and GAVI (vaccine alliance) supported countries. This also paves the way for WHO member countries to introduce the Typbar TCV into their immunization programs.
TCVs are innovative products having longer-lasting immunity than older vaccines and require fewer doses. They can be given to young children through routine childhood immunization programs. TCVs have been recommended by WHO’s Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (WHO-SAGE).
Typhoid fever is caused by bacterium Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi). It infects humans due to contaminated food and beverages from sewage and other infected humans. Its symptoms include fever, fatigue, headache, abdominal pain, and diarrhoea or constipation.
Currently, a third of global population is at risk of typhoid fever, which results in loss of work and wages, lowered pregnancy outcomes and impaired the physical and cognitive development of children. According to International Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) estimates in 2016, there were approximately 12 million cases of typhoid fever resulting in around 130,000 deaths. Urbanisation and climate change have potential to further increase global burden of typhoid.


Vaccination | An introduction

Vaccination is playing most important role in medical biology. Millions of lives are saved every year worldwide because of vaccination and these people are also saved from illness and lifelong disability. Prevention of diseases is the most desirable, most convenient and highly effective approach to health; this is achieved by vaccination or immunization using biological preparations called vaccines. In past few years many vaccines were developed for many terrifying diseases such as diptheria, mumps, measles, tetanus etc. There are many advantages of vaccines but despite of all this, there some adverse effects of vaccines which occur due to addition of some chemicals in vaccines during their manufacturing. Presently vaccines like contaminated vaccines, live recombinant vaccines, recombinant polypeptide vaccines and DNA vaccines. In this scientists made many clinical trials to produce effective vaccine for HIV virus and also made some new vaccines for disease 

Vaccination is one of the major contributions of immunology to medical science. Most of the world’s children are protected from a number of infectious diseases by routine immunization in each year. The observation that individuals who recovered from some infectious diseases were resistant to subsequent re-infection long proceeded the development of the science of immunology & our understanding of immune response. Indeed, the Eward Jenner  & Louis Pasteur  made the first attempt of vaccination for human diseases . Their efforts to reproduce immunity by artificial exposure to infectious agents were so successful that many diseases, were rapidly controlled. Vaccine were developed rapidly against infectious diseases .The disease such as diphtheria , measles ,mumps, poliomyelitis, whooping cough (pertusis), rubella & tetanus  has declined sufficiently due to WHO policy of vaccination of children . It is a cost-effective process for disease prevention. The vaccines golden age first time started when Koch, Pasteur, Roman & Merieuy founded the germ theory & developed vaccines which are based on inactivated toxins(toxoids) and inactivated (killed) pathogens or live attenuated. Vaccination has been responsible for the recent increase in world’s motility rate.
An ideal vaccine or vaccination protocol should have the following features.
1. It should not be tumorogenic or toxic or pathogenic ,i.e., it should be safe.
2. It should have very low levels of side-effects.
3. It should not cause problems in individuals with an impaired immune system.
4. It should not spread either within the vaccinated individual or to other individuals (live vaccines).
5. It should not contaminate the environment.
6. It should be effective in producing long lasting humoral and cellular immunities.
7. The technique of vaccination should be simple.
8. The vaccine should be cheap so that it is affordable.
So far, such an ideal vaccine has not been developed.
The first developed vaccine in the world is the Bacille Calmette-Gnerin(BCG) vaccine, that has been given to more than 4 billion people so far. In the infants the BCG vaccines is more effective to fight against severe tuberculosis (TB) disease, but BCG as a booster is not that much effective when the immune system gets weak.
When the peoples immune system become weak, immunization is used to eliminate or delay, to fight diseases that can reduce their lifespan. An infectious diseases which are tend to come back in life, such as diseases which are associated with the risk of hospitalization and cancer, influenza, RSV and pneumococcus.



ROTAVAC is a new rotavirus vaccine that consists of a strain of the virus that was isolated, manufactured and tested in India. The ROTAVAC trial represents a significant victory for India's scientific community. Based on the study's successful findings, infants in India will gain access to a licensed vaccine and its significant protection against severe rotavirus-induced gastroenteritis.

Rotavac conceived and developed by the Hyderabad-based Bharat Biotech Limited. It protects against childhood diarrhoea caused by the rotavirus. It was developed under the joint collaboration between India and United States in area of medical research.
It was developed under public-private partnership (PPP) model that involved Ministry of Science and Technology, institutions of the US Government and NGOs in India supported by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
The vaccine was built on strain of the virus isolated at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi over 30 years ago. It has been included in India’s national immunisation programme. The vaccine was tested in field for over a year, have not shown any negative effect.
This recognition signifies credible industrial, scientific and regulatory process in place to develop vaccines in India. It paves the way for health and humanitarian organizations such as UNICEF, GAVI and Pan-American Health Organization to procure Rotavac for public health vaccination programmes across the world.
It is a most common causative agent of moderate-to-severe diarrhoea (MSD) among infants below 11 months age group in India. It spreads from person to person due to bacterial and parasiting agents that are primarily transmitted through contaminated food or water. It is responsible for estimated 36% of hospitalisations for childhood diarrhoea around world and for estimated 200,000 deaths in low- and middle-income countries. In India, diarrhoea caused by rotavirus, kills nearly 80 thousand children under age of 5 years and up to 10 lakh hospitalizations each year.


History of Vaccines

Variolation is also called engrafting was introduced in England in 1721, in which dried pus was introduced from smallpox pustules into the skin of the patient. The vaccination came into existance back hundreds of years. In 1796, Edward Jenner inoculated a 13-year old boy by vaccina virus (cowpox) and demonstrated the immunity against smallpox. The process of inoculation was first used by Chinese physicians in the 10th century. Smallpox was a contagious and deadly disease, causing the death of 20% - 60% of infected adults and over 80% of infected children. Smallpox was eradicated in 1979, after killing 300-500 million people in 20th century.  After this he gained the title of vaccination in 17th century. In 1897 and 1904 Louis Pasteur discovered attenuated live cholera and inactivated anthrax vaccine in humans respectively. In the late 19th century plague vaccine was also invented. In 1990s, Arntzen developed the concept of edible vaccines. Bacillis- Calmette- Gnerin (BCG) was  invented in between 1890 and 1950 which is still used. In 1923, a method was developed to inactivate tetanus toxin with formaldehyde by Alexander Glenny. The same method was used to develop diptheria vaccine in the year 1926. In modern times, vaccines had eradicated many diseases which have been very useful. The first disease to be targeted was smallpox. After that in 1988, the WHO targeted Polio by 2000. After all this some vaccines are still elusine for many dangerous diseases like herpes, malaria, gonorrhea and HIV. In the 20th century, protection against foreign pathogens with low degree of antigen variability increased because of the development of vaccines. 


Edible Vaccine

Edible vaccines are nothing but  transgenic plant and animal based production of  or those that contain agents that trigger an animal’s immune response. In simple terms, edible vaccines are plant or animal made pharmaceuticals. The earliest demonstration of an edible vaccine was the expression of a surface antigen from the bacterium Streptococcus mutans  in tobacco. As this bacterium causes dental caries, it was envisaged that the stimulation of a mucosal immune response would prevent the bacteria from colonizing the teeth and therefore protect against tooth decay.

Working Of Edible Vaccines

How Does An Edible Vaccine Work?

Initial response to vaccines 

When a disease agent appear 

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Antimicrobial peptides A Brief

Mechanism and Antimicrobial Application of Histatin 5, Defensin and  Cathelicidin Peptides Derivatives  

Peptides are the expression of genes which are regulated by the defense mechanism of the cell. Antipeptides or proteins are the inhibitory factors or proteins which are being designed to inhibit the function of defective ones. AMP's Kill cells in various ways lie by upsetting layer respectability, by repressing proteins, DNA and RNA union, or by collaborating with certain intracellular targets. All AMPs known by the late-90s are cationic. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are oligopeptides with a varying number (from five to over a hundred) of amino acids. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have broad spectrum of antimicrobial action against microscopic organisms like viruses, fungi, and parasites. In this article the action and mechanism of the antimicrobial activities of peptides which are actually called Proteins are discussed. The little cationic peptides are multifunctional as effectors of natural invulnerability on skin and mucosal surfaces and have shown coordinate antimicrobial movement against different microorganisms, infections, organisms, and parasites. Histatin 5, Defensin and Cathelicidins are the peptides which are found in animals and plants which have their own functions against hosts.
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