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IMMUNOLOGY

Typhoid Vaccine

The World Health Organisation (WHO) has given its pre-qualification to Typbar Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine (TVC) developed by Hyderabad based Bharat Biotech for global use.

Typbar TCV is world’s first typhoid vaccine clinically proven to be administered to children from six months of age to adults, and confers long-term protection against typhoid fever. It has been evaluated in Human Challenge Studies at Oxford University.
Significance
The WHO pre-qualification enables procurement and supplies of this life-saving vaccine to UNICEF, Pan-American Health Organisation (PAHO) and GAVI (vaccine alliance) supported countries. This also paves the way for WHO member countries to introduce the Typbar TCV into their immunization programs.
TCVs are innovative products having longer-lasting immunity than older vaccines and require fewer doses. They can be given to young children through routine childhood immunization programs. TCVs have been recommended by WHO’s Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (WHO-SAGE).
Typhoid
Typhoid fever is caused by bacterium Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi). It infects humans due to contaminated food and beverages from sewage and other infected humans. Its symptoms include fever, fatigue, headache, abdominal pain, and diarrhoea or constipation.
Currently, a third of global population is at risk of typhoid fever, which results in loss of work and wages, lowered pregnancy outcomes and impaired the physical and cognitive development of children. According to International Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) estimates in 2016, there were approximately 12 million cases of typhoid fever resulting in around 130,000 deaths. Urbanisation and climate change have potential to further increase global burden of typhoid.

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