Vaccination | An introduction

Vaccination of human Vaccination is playing most important role in medical biology. Millions of lives are saved every year worldwide because of vaccination and these people are also saved from illness and lifelong disability. Prevention of diseases is the most desirable, most convenient and highly effective approach to health; this is achieved by vaccination or immunization using biological preparations called vaccines. In past few years many vaccines were developed for many terrifying diseases such as diptheria, mumps, measles, tetanus etc. 

There are many advantages of vaccines but despite of all this, there some adverse effects of vaccines which occur due to addition of some chemicals in vaccines during their manufacturing. Presently vaccines like contaminated vaccines, live recombinant vaccines, recombinant polypeptide vaccines and DNA vaccines. In this scientists made many clinical trials to produce effective vaccine for HIV virus and also made some new vaccines for disease 
Vaccination is one of the major contributions of immunology to medical science. Most of the world’s children are protected from a number of infectious diseases by routine immunization in each year. The observation that individuals who recovered from some infectious diseases were resistant to subsequent re-infection long proceeded the development of the science of immunology & our understanding of immune response. Indeed, the Eward Jenner  & Louis Pasteur  made the first attempt of vaccination for human diseases . Their efforts to reproduce immunity by artificial exposure to infectious agents were so successful that many diseases, were rapidly controlled. Vaccine were developed rapidly against infectious diseases .The disease such as diphtheria , measles ,mumps, poliomyelitis, whooping cough (pertusis), rubella & tetanus  has declined sufficiently due to WHO policy of vaccination of children . It is a cost-effective process for disease prevention. The vaccines golden age first time started when Koch, Pasteur, Roman & Merieuy founded the germ theory & developed vaccines which are based on inactivated toxins(toxoids) and inactivated (killed) pathogens or live attenuated. Vaccination has been responsible for the recent increase in world’s mortility rate.

An ideal vaccine or vaccination protocol should have the following features.
1. It should not be tumorogenic or toxic or pathogenic ,i.e., it should be safe.
2. It should have very low levels of side-effects.
3. It should not cause problems in individuals with an impaired immune system.
4. It should not spread either within the vaccinated individual or to other individuals (live vaccines).
5. It should not contaminate the environment.
6. It should be effective in producing long lasting humoral and cellular immunities.
7. The technique of vaccination should be simple.
8. The vaccine should be cheap so that it is affordable.

So far, such an ideal vaccine has not been developed.
The first developed vaccine in the world is the Bacille Calmette-Gnerin(BCG) vaccine, that has been given to more than 4 billion people so far. In the infants the BCG vaccines is more effective to fight against severe tuberculosis (TB) disease, but BCG as a booster is not that much effective when the immune system gets weak.

When the peoples immune system become weak, immunization is used to eliminate or delay, to fight diseases that can reduce their lifespan. An infectious diseases which are tend to come back in life, such as diseases which are associated with the risk of hospitalization and cancer, influenza, RSV and pneumococcus.


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