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Sunday, August 26, 2018

GODS and GHOSTS !

Before starting I must clear that this article is not intend to hurt any religion or caste these are the personal experience and theory given by me.
Since my childhood I only think about evils,  gods and ghosts that what possibility that they exist?  even my grandparents tells stories of them which are pretty much interesting and have a lot of moral and ethical values. As I grow up, My interest takes me towards science which completely denies their existence. So I recall the stories and the moral values in them and tried to find my answers. I found that many years ago when the humans are developing they are living and behaving same like animals, some of them evolved themselves better and used their constructive mind to make humans better,  we call them ''Rishi-Muni'' or ''Sadhu''. In the Indian history you will find these Rishi's have a wide and important role in society.  Actually they are the Doctors, Scientists and Engineers at that time,  you may find all that in Vedas,  and Indian epic stories.

How the concept of GOD came in existence! 

According to historical aspects  when humans behaved ruthless and become unkind, everywhere is crime and people don't think of their personal life then the Rishi or Sadhu came to an point that If they have some kind of fear and hope then they might become good person and get busy in their own work. Keeping this fact in mind they created a word GOD, and said that he is our leader we should follow him worship him and we all are child of god they created us. And then they introduced lot of stories about GOD which are being used to tell stories to next generation for giving moral and ethical values.

How the concept of GHOST came in existence! 

Even when the most of people starting believing in GOD and his existence some might have doubt or start going against him. They do their crimes and evil deeds at night (mostly night). Then the Rishi's have some problems to face them so they Created a concept of Ghost and signifies them that they are the bad souls of living ones who are killed by someone and they are very dangerous. They take revenge of their death. By this they almost controlled the situation and for making believe strongly they created lot of stories. 

How the personal and social problems controlled by Rishi's? 

When every one is living their life they do their daily works and uses the natural resources well. They cut trees and plants without any boundaries. Then Rishi's realised that our environment is on threat if it is going like this than soon there are no plants and trees.  Then they tried to teach them the importance of trees and plants along with uses and their application. But they failed because people didn't understand well. Then the Rishi's got an idea that why shouldn't we relate them with their GODs. But relating all plants with religion creates a doubt in people's mind so they related important plants and trees with God and large, big and woody with Ghosts. They thought by this people learn their usefulness, but it has an opposite reaction they start worshipping them planted in their gardens and at their homes. The big trees remains part of forests and remain undisturbed long years. But the protection of environment is successful. 
Every time they have problems they find suitable solution which is scientific but related with religion applicable for everyone.So what are your opinions about this.! 
Comment If you have experienced any thing like this......... ....!!!!!

Sunday, August 12, 2018

Amino Acids | Health Supplement


  Amino acids are the building blocks of protein as well as of the body. Some of the amino acids which are the derivatives of the essential amino acids are very useful for growth and development however human body can synthesize them but during stress of poor metabolic activities they may be externally supplemented. Here are few of them described:                                                 

L-Glutamine is an amino acid. Generally it is synthesized in the body in a limited amount. During stress the requirement of glutamine is increased by the body. Glutamine is found in muscles. The mineral salts are also added to compensate the loss of ions during the metabolic activity.
AVAILABILITY OF GLUTAMINE
The amino acid is synthesized in the body in the form of glutamic acid but in limited amount during stress. The dietary source of glutamine is beef and chicken. Thus it become hard for vegans to meet their requirement. In that case glutamine is externally supplemented in the body.

HEALTH BENEFITS

  • Build immunity
  • Gut function
  • Helps to counteract oxidative stress
  • Growth and development of muscles 



L-Arginine is an amino acid require

Advancement and Challenges in Biopesticides Development

The science is as yet thought to be youthful and developing. A portion of the Biopesticides is being worked on, and may end up being fantastic contrasting options to the compound pesticides. A large number of them depend on the locally accessible plants like Neem, Garlic, and Triphala and so forth which can be effectively prepared and made accessible to the ranchers to enhance the Biopesticides utilization.
Bimolecules are being the most recent activity which had been assumed a critical part in headway and proficiency of Biopesticides. (Engineers, 2008). The GMO's are being the most recent and new headway in the field of Biopesticides. r-DNA innovation is another and perfect progression accomplished in the field of pesticides (e.g.CRISPR-cas framework with single protein effectors).

Nanotechnology

Nano level materials encourage the nuclear level specificity and activity of pesticides just in the focused on condition including particular pH, temperature and nearness of particular mixes. Nanopesticide can decreases the issues which are assessed in compound pesticides (vulnerability on the long haul causing malignancy, liver harm, neural issue and immunotoxicity) and show more bioavailability than conventional Biopesticides. Nanoparticle Bacillus thuringiensis have demonstrated expanded efficiency, great scattering and wet capacity, biodegradable in soil and condition, not so much lethal but rather more photograph generative, with surely knew harmful energy and dangerous elements, and are observed to be steady. If there should arise an occurrence of growth, Nano-chitosan definition had been set up by various techniques. Radical unite polymerization of acrylic corrosive onto chitosan demonstrated antifungal and insecticidal movement against some chose soybean seed borne organisms. Trichoderma based compounds (chitin and glucans) are known to demonstrate bug safe movement. Then again plant based Nano definitions, for example, eucalyptus based Nano emulsions was found to display antimicrobial movement.

Recombinant DNA Biotechnology


Recombinant DNA innovation have been utilized to enhance bacterial bug spray viability and connected to enhance larvicides by controlling and recombining quality for vector control. Mosquitocidal Cyt and Cry proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis alongside the paired poison of Bacillus sphaericus were joined to display enhanced adequacy against culex species. These recombinant builds were utilized as bug sprays as well as indicated compelling control of the mosquito vectors for Dengue fever, filariasis and malaria. The first recombinant vector was created in th field of agriculture to prevent the crops of cotton from insect Bt cotton.  This technology is developing and untill we insert genes which are resistance of insects and pests. 

Future Aspects 


The Bimolecules particularly protein particles are intended to create cutting edge pesticides, which work effectively on bothers. It has been engaged that Biopesticides should address the issue of end client, these are: 
  • targeted, maintainable and earth agreeable 
  • safe for nourishment utilize and human wellbeing 
  • Effective and simple to use.

Challenges 

The development of Biopesticides in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) system by combining ecological science in to genomic technologies.
  • RNA interference can’t be commercialized as it has negative impacts on the plants by itself. 
  • The gene manipulation is not work as expected in some cases.
  • Value added benefits, such as plant health, yields and quality and an increase in beneficials, both traditional and organic cultivation.
Bibliography 
  • International Journal of Biotechnology and Biomedical Sciences p-ISSN 2454-4582, e￾ISSN 2454-7808, Volume 2, Number 1; January-June, 2016 pp. 73-77 “Review of Current Research Advances in Microbial and Phyto-biopesticides” by S Krishna Sundari1*, Aditi Singh2 and Pooja Yadava3 1Biotechnology Department JIIT, Noida 2,3JIIT, NOIDA E-mail: 1krishna.sundari@jiit.ac.in, 2aditi.aditi.singh22@gmail.com, 3poojayadava1891@gmail.com 18. http://googleweblight.com/i?u=http
  • Engineers, 2008 NPCS Board of Consultant and Engineers ASIA PACIFIC BUSINESS PRESS inc. 1/10/2008

Sunday, August 05, 2018

CLONING | Advantage to Prokaryotes or US!

Scientifically the species which are the exact copies of their parents are termed as clones and the process is called as cloning. Clones are formed by asexual reproduction without any genetic alterations ( as occurs in sexual reproduction ). The species produced via this type of technique have limited life spans and low chances of survival. 
According to the theory of evolution, the species  which fits themselves best in environment have better chances of survival and every species have some sort of variations as compared to their parents which makes them suitable for the changing environment. Its amazing that the Prokaryotes produces via asexual reproduction in which are exact copy of their parents, still most of them survives in harsh environmental conditions. 

Post Reproduction Adaptations 

It is  seen in species that after the reproduction they might adapt some changes at genetic level both Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes. This mostly seen in Prokaryotes because they need lot of changes to survive.
Single Cell species which reproduce through asexual reproduction have greater abilities to adapt the environmental changes at their genetic level so that their next progenies will already have and not facing problems. But this adaptation is very quick and limited only few species are able to adapt rest of them are dead. This maintains their population because sigle cell species are disease causing agents for Eukaryotes,  if their population increase drastically others may face problems.

Why they produce via Asexual mode? 

The Prokaryotes are harmful for Eukaryotes as they are disease causing agents. However they contribute a lot in the ecosystem.( discussed in next section). Here are the major reasons:

  • Their population is controlled because they  replicate themselves as very high frequency if all of them able to survive than whole ecosystem will unbalanced soon. 
  • Being a single cell they have best mode of regulation of their next generation, however some species are able to produce via sexual mode of reproduction during extreme conditions e.g: Aspergillus

Application in Biotechnology 

Their rapid growth and multiplication attracted scientists and researchers to use them as natural bioreactors. Along with their life cycle they produce some metabolic chemicals which are benifitable sometime and sometime harmful. 

  • Production of antibiotics by  bacteria and fungi. Streptomycin,tetracycline and erythromycin are some of the commonly known antibiotics which are made from fungi and bacteria.
  • Production of Chemicals, Enzymes and other Bioactive Molecules
  • Examples of acid producers are
  • Aspergillus niger (a fungus) of citric acid
  • Acetobacter aceti (a bacterium) of acetic acid
  • Clostridium butylicum (a bacterium) of butyric acid
  • Lactobacillus (a bacterium) of lactic acid.
  • Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is used for commercial production of ethanol.
  • Lipases are used in detergent formulations and are helpful in removing oily stains from the laundry.
  • The bottled juices are clarified by the use of pectinases and proteases.
  • Streptokinase produced by the bacterium Streptococcus and modified by genetic engineering is used as a ‘clot buster’ for removing clots from the blood vessels of patients who have undergone myocardial infraction leading to heart attack.
  • Another bioactive molecule, cyclosporin A, that is used as an immunosuppressive agent in organ-transplant patients, is produced by the fungus Tnchoderma polysporum.
  • Statins produced by the yeast Monascus purpureus have been commercialized as blood-cholesterol lowering agents. It acts by competitively inhibiting the enzyme responsible for synthesis of cholesterol.
  • Conversion of Milk into Curd by Lactobacillus. 
  • Fermentation of milk in industries. 
  • Sewage treatment.
  • Production of Biogas. 
  • Microbes as biocontrol agents : Biocontrol refers to the use of biological methods for controlling plant diseases and pests. Biological agents are a better alternative to weedicides and pesticides.
  • Microbes as Biofertilisers. 
Bibliography 
NCERT  text books from 6 to 12.