India was one of the first countries in the world to use the "family planning" programme, which began in 1951. In a culture, reproductive health is an important component of overall health. Under the common moniker 'Reproductive and child health care (RCH) programme,' improved programmers encompassing a broader range of reproduction-related issues are presently in operation. Young people's health and education, as well as marriage and childbearing at more mature phases of life, are all crucial factors in a society's reproductive health.

 Government Measures to create awareness among people about reproduction related aspects:

 The government is doing this with the help of: 

• Audio-visuals and print media.

 • Even family members and close relatives are becoming aware. 

• Sex education is implemented in schools to raise awareness. 

• Adequate education regarding reproductive organs, puberty and associated changes, safe and sanitary sexual behaviors, sexually transmitted illnesses, AIDS is also being taught in schools.

Amniocentesis: It is a method that uses amniotic fluid to detect chromosomal abnormalities in growing embryos. It is also misapplied to determine foetal sex based on the chromosomal pattern in the amniotic fluid around the growing embryo. 

Population explosion and Birth Control

 People's improved quality of life, enhanced health care, and better living conditions had an exponential influence on population growth. 

The fundamental cause of population explosion is: 

o Rapid drop in death rates,

 o MMR (maternal mortality rate) 

o IMR (infant mortality rate) 

o An increase in the population of reproductive age. 

Steps to combat population growth are: 

o Using numerous ways of contraception.

 o Educating individuals about the disadvantages of having a big family.

 o Increasing both female and male marriageable ages.

 o Providing an incentive to parents with one or two children. An ideal way of controlling the population is the use of contraceptives. 

Contraceptives: these come in form of pills and many other forms that prevent the fusion of egg and the sperm and hence the pregnancy. 

An ideal contraceptive should have following features:

 ✓ User friendly 

✓ Easily available 

✓ Effective 

✓ Reversible 

✓ No side effects 

✓ No way interferes with sexual desire and sexual act.

 Contraceptives methods:

 (i) Natural/Traditional Method: these avoids the meeting of sperm and ovum by chance and includes the following:

 o Periodic abstinence: Couples avoid coitus from day 10 to day 17 of their menstrual cycle since the odds. of fertilisation are relatively high during this period, which is known as the fertile period. 

o Coitus interruptus: To avoid fertilisation, the male partner withdraws the penis from the vagina immediately before ejaculation. 

o Lactational Amenorrhea: Because of the lack of menstruation following parturition, as well as the strong milk feeding and lack of ovulation during this period, the odds of fertilisation are minimal. 

(ii) Barrier method: A barrier prevents ovum and sperm from physically meeting. This includes the following: 

o Condom: ‘Nirodh’ is a popular brand of condom in males.\

o Diaphragms, cervical caps and vaults:  these are rubber barrier put into the female reproductive tract during coitus. Spermicidal lotions, jellies, and foams are commonly used in conjunction with these barriers to improve their contraceptive effectiveness. 

Barrier approaches provide the following advantages: 

✓ They can be discarded easily.

 ✓ They are self-insertable. 

✓ They may be reused 

✓ Prevents conception by blocking entry of sperm through cervix.

 (iii) IUD’s: put vaginally into the uterus of a female by a doctor or a skilled nurse Nonmedicated IUDs (e.g., Lippes loop), copper releasing IUDs (CuT, Cu7, Multiload 375), and hormone releasing IUDs are all examples of IUCDs (Progestasert, LNG-20).

IUDs promote sperm phagocytosis in the uterus, but copper releasing IUDs decreases sperm motility and reproductive capability. IUDs that release hormones render the uterus unsuitable for implantation and the cervix unfriendly to sperms. It is great for females who desire to postpone pregnancy and have space between two children. 

A: Condoms   B: IUDs (CuT)  C: Implants  D: Vasectomy  E: Tubectomy  

(iv) Oral pills: Females take progesterone or a progesterone-estrogen combo in the form of pills. They hinder or delay sperm entrance by inhibiting ovulation and implantation and altering the quality of cervical mucus. Progesterone or a progesterone-estrogen combination administered within 72 hours following coitus has been demonstrated to be particularly effective as an emergency contraceptive. 

(v) Surgical Methods: it a terminal method of contraception and can be done on both males and females.

 o Vasectomy: In males, a little portion of the vas deferens is excised or tied up by a minor incision on the scrotum to prevent sperm release.

o Tubectomy: is a medical procedure in which a little portion of the fallopian tube is surgically removed.

These procedures are quite successful, but their reversibility is extremely low. 

Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP):

 MTP (medical termination of pregnancy) or induced abortion refers to the voluntary termination of a pregnancy before full term.

 It contributes significantly to population reduction by terminating unwanted pregnancies. MTP was legalised in India in 1971, with various restrictions to avoid its abuse, such as indiscriminate and unlawful female foeticides. 

MTP is used to avoid undesired pregnancy as a result of unprotected intercourse or the failure of contraception used during coitus or rapes.

 When continuing the pregnancy might be detrimental to the mother or baby. During the first trimester, or up to 12 weeks of pregnancy, MTPs are regarded reasonably safe. MTPs in the second trimester are much risky

Sexually Transmitted Diseases: 

Sexually transmitted illness, venereal disease (VD), or reproductive tract infection refers to diseases or infections spread by sexual contact (RTI). 

 Common STI symptoms include itching and burning around your genital area. The good news is that most STI treatments can cure the infection, but not all types. You can get an STI again, even after treatment to cure it.

Gonorrhea, syphilis, genital herpes, chlamydiasis, genital warts, trichomoniasis, hepatitis-B, and AIDS are among prevalent STDs

. Hepatitis B and HIV can also be transferred by the sharing of injection needles or surgical equipment with an infected individual, blood transfusion, or from an infected mother to a foetus. 

  • Bacteria, including chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis
  • Viruses, including HIV/AIDS, herpes simplex virus, human papillomavirus, hepatitis B virus, cytomegalovirus (CMV).
  • Parasites, such as trichomonas vaginalis, or insects such as crab lice or scabies mites.

With the exception of genital herpes, HIV and hepatitis-B are totally curable if discovered and treated early. 

STDs must be detected and treated as soon as possible, otherwise they can lead to:

 (i) pelvic inflammatory disorders (PID).

(ii) abortions, stillbirths, ectopic pregnancies, 


 Infertile couples are those who are unable to reproduce offspring despite unprotected sex. There might be several explanations for this, including physical, congenital, illnesses, medications, immunological, or psychological factors. Infertile couples can be helped to bear children using specific treatments known as Assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Some of the methods include: 

In-vitro fertilisation (IVF): The test tube baby programme involves fertilisation outside the body followed by embryo transfer. 

• The ovum from the wife/donor and the sperms from the husband/donor are collected and fertilized in a laboratory setting. 

• For further development, a zygote or early embryo (8 blastomeres) is transferred into the fallopian tube using ZIFT (zygote infra fallopian transfer) and an embryo with more than 8 blastomeres via IUT (intra uterine transfer) into the uterus. 

Gamete intra fallopian transfer (GIFT): Transfer of gametes from a donor into the fallopian tube of another female who does not produce an egg. 

Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection: specialised laboratory process for forming an embryo in which sperm is directly inserted into the ovum.

 Artificial insemination: Infertility cases in which the male spouse is unable to generate healthy sperms are treated with this treatment, in this method the donor sperm is intentionally delivered into the female's vagina or uterus by IUI (intra uterine insemination). 

Surrogacy is an adoption arrangement, often supported by a legal agreement, whereby a woman agrees to childbirth on behalf of another person(s) who will become the child's parent(s) after birth. People pursue surrogacy for a variety of reasons such as infertility, dangers or undesirable factors of pragnancy, or when pregnancy is a medical impossibility.

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