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Saturday, September 29, 2018

Virus v/s Bacteria | who is more powerful !


Virus and Bacteria both are the biotic components of our ecosystem and they are biologically very important as like any other component in our environment
Before starting the answer One fact I must clear that Bacteria's are most abundant than viruses. Not all bacteria are dangerous for us but all viruses are dangerous for us.

As far as we all know that bacteria have a complete cell and perform all it's metabolic activities and do much more by itself but viruses can't do itself. Viruses need a host to complete their life cycle. 
Viruses are much more chronic to us because they have only a set of DNA/RNA as their genetic material which they insert in host's genome to complete their life cycle. Once the viral genome inserted in host's genome then it becomes difficult to eradicate the effects of virus and it's gene, but thanks to modern genetic engineering we can control, knock out,  and decrease the effects of particular genes at some extent. 
When we talk about bacteria's they are most harmfull but depends on their population and antigenic secretions. When they present in small amount their antigens are also in less and are controlled by antibiotics but in larger amount they are hard to control. 
Bacterial infection is also chronic, some bacteria's have impact on our primary immune defences some have impact on our nerve system. When its impact is more on our body we are unable to respond against it and it becomes dangerous for us.  Certain studies found that bacteria become antibiotic resistance if exposed over long time e.g: Salmonellae,  Helicobector pylori, Enterobacteriacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus etc.
While in case of viruses they gain control on our genes and every time translation occurs it affects. Newly discovered Retro viruses are very dangerous and almost impossible to cure because they do reverse transcription to form their DNA inside the host and after that weakens the host immune system, due to which other diseases arise and person dies. In the case of HIV
We can see in our history viruses have larger effects on eradicating a huge population e.g: Plague,  Enterovirus, Rabbies,  Ebola etc. 

Conclusion 
At last i concluded that viruses are more dangerous than any bacteria if they entered in host's cell and inserted their genomes, here i exclude some viruses that are very much poor in pathogenecity like influenza virus.  But bacteria are too dangerous although we have antibiotics against them but they ate limited due to their adaptation to antibiotic resistance ability.  
For full reference and details visit this page Better Health,Australia

For any query 🔤 feel free to ask us...... ..........we are here to explain..........!! Comment your views Viruses or Bacteria what do you think?

Wednesday, September 19, 2018

Noise Pollution

  
  The normal range of hearing is 20Hz to 20KHz.  When we talk in decibel unit it is 60db for average speech. The maximum sound of 140db can be hearable by a young man how ever long period of time may harm.  For the children it is 120db beyond that several health effects seen. "Experiments have shown that a healthy young person hears all sound frequencies from approximately 20 to 20,000 hertz." "The maximum range of human hearing includes sound frequencies from about 15 to about 18,000 waves, or cycles, per second." "The general range of hearing for young people is 20 Hz to 20 kHz."


Pollution of Sound                                           

It means unwanted sound that can have deleterious effects on human health and environmental quality. It is commonly generated inside many industrial facilities and some other workplaces, but it also comes from highway, railway, and airplane traffic and from outdoor construction activities. It has become a serious problem for human health. The noisy atmosphere in which we are living is an obstacle in securing good health. Noise pollution and environmental noise are hurting human and other organisms. Noise beyond a limit produces many diseases, such as hypertension, stress, making people vulnerable to forgetfulness, depression and many other serious ailments. Noise is also very dangerous for nature as a whole because it disturbs the tranquillity of all creatures and increases mortality rate in them. Noise pollution is dependent on the loudness and frequency of the sound. In facts, when the sound exceeds its limit, it become fatal for human and other organisms.

The sources of noise pollutions are divided into two categories:

Natural sources

The natural environment is filled with various sounds- thunderstorm, lightning, tornado, cyclone, volcanic eruption, earthquakes, landslides, sounds produced by animals, and rapidly falling water.

Human sources

Rapid industrialization, urbanisation, use of modern means of transport, population growth, and increasing scale of human activities are some of the human factors responsible for noise pollution, Both types of noise pollution, affect sleep, listening ability, physical and mental health.
Low, Soft,  high medium sound waves

Vehicular noise: The modern means of traffic including vehicles such as buses, trucks, scooters, cars etc. pollute the atmosphere. Sound of other automated vehicles and horn, excessive use of loudspeakers for religious purposes also generate jarring noise.
Industrial noise: Industry- businesses, factories and commercial establishments produced a variety of harsh sounds that bump into our ears and disturb our mind. Noise pollution is an integral part of the industrial environment with heavy machines used in the industries; it is on the rise with the increase in industrial urbanisation.
Fireworks: It is another source of pollution. Uncontrolled fireworks in festivals, fairs, or crackers, after victory in matches and elections produce unbearable noise.
Some reasons are also for that inside and outside the house includes car alarms, emergency service siren, machine tools, compressed air horn, equipment, electrical equipment, megaphone etc.

Effect  

  • Physical effects: The physical manifestation of noise pollution is the effect on hearing ability. Repeated exposure to noise may result in temporary or permanent shifting of the hearing threshold of a person depending upon the level and duration of exposure.
  • Physiological effects: Headache bye dilating blood vessels of the brain.
  • Increase in the rate of heart beat.
  • Narrowing of arteries.
  • Pain in the heart.
  • Migration patterns of birds are disturbed, due to which their population is decreasing.

Remedies

  • Automobile servicing 
  • Tree plantation
  • Soundproof homes
  • Factory location

No matter what is it but the noise pollution doesn't have greater impact on ecosystem but it is harmful for humans because humans have limit of hearing 20KHz beyond it harms.
So what is the sound frequency in your near by......... Do you know what to do to prevent yourself from this situation. ... ..................! !!

Saturday, September 15, 2018

Are DNA/RNA living?


First thing I clear that living organisms are made up of several biochemically active components which together makes it ‘living', but technically we can't say them living individually because together they make a functional biological system which is living.
Here you are considering DNA as a living, its okay but you are referring it also as an organism which is not appropriate or technically correct.
Second thing Nucleus is comprised of DNA and RNA (95% and 5% respectively). So being an nucleus is not likely to be an living organism. If it is then every atom on earth is living organism.

Wednesday, September 12, 2018

Soil Pollution


There is about 28% land available for farming on earth rest of the 72% is covered with water. In that 28% we have to live, grow plants and trees and the current situation is leading to the pollution in soil which makes it unfertile.  Means to say that the land available for habitat but not for plants.  In this way no farming is possible,  slowly plants disappear from land and the plants present in oceans not sufficient for us. So humans can't survive without plants, and plants without soil.       
Germinating a healthy seed

Pollution in Soil

It occurs due to incorporation of unwanted chemicals in the soil due to human activities. Use of insecticides and pesticides absorbs the nitrogen compounds from the soil making it unfit for plants to drive nutrition from. Soil pollution refers to the mixing of human made chemicals like industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals, and other harmful disposal of wastes from houses, factories, etc. into the natural soil which causes land degradation and makes it unfit for the cropping. Soil is the natural resources on the earth which directly supports the life of plants and indirectly of animals since the origin of life on the earth. It is very important complex substance available everywhere on the earth. Increasing human population and advancement of the human lives is causing soil pollution to a great extent. Main causes of soil pollution are excessive soil erosion, forest fires, use of chemical fertilizers to improve crop production, pesticides (insecticides and herbicides), to get control over insects, urban and industrial wastes, drought untreated industrial water irrigation, deforestation etc. It is increasing day by day at a faster rate in the rural and urban areas of the country due to increasing density of the people.
All the soil contaminants get mixed to the fertile land and causes variety of health disorder directly such as respiratory illness, bronchitis, asthma, cancer, etc. Kids are more prone to the polluted soil than the adults as they into it and gets attacked by many diseases especially respiratory disorders. Increasing human population need more grains thus in order to fulfil this requirement people use highly concentrated fertilizers to improve the crop production which ultimately affects health through the food chain. Soil pollution is the gradual process of soil poisoning of the toxic soil contaminants. Soil pollution has become a major challenge to the whole human fraternity in modern time. Soil is the most important natural resources highly requires to maintain the healthy life here.  

        Sources 


  • Mining and smelting
  • Overcrowded landfills
  • Biological agents like fungi, virus, bacteria and protozoan
  • Urban wastes
  • Overuse of chemical fertilisers 
  • Untreated water when comes under the contact of soil. The untreated water have lot of toxic and heavy metals. You may say water pollution is also a reason for soil pollution.

       Effects

  • Urban wastes harmful for human health
  • Mining and smelting makes the soil fertile
  • Biological agents are harm the development and existence of flora and fauna

      Remedies

  • Do not litter
  • Use dustbin
  • Reduce use of plastic
  • Spraying of pesticides must be reduced
  • Sewage treatment before dumping wastes

Health effects of Soil Pollution 

Plants are the largest and only producers present on earth. They depend on the soil, because all their required nutrients and water comes from soil, if it is polluted the pollutants move in plants and the effect will be seen on the consumers who consume directly or their products. The heavy metals and toxic elements enter in the animal and human body which may lead them in several disabilities and diseases. 

So what you have seen in unusual in soil.... .. Tell us... 

Saturday, September 08, 2018

Can Humans Survive Without Plants?


Plants are autotrophic and animals are heterotrophic. Thus plants are the primary source of food for animals. One way or another, all animals are getting their food from plants. Besides food, autotrophs liberate oxygen — very important to all eukaryotic life.
Plants directly or indirectly responsible for our environment regulation. Plants helps to clean air, prevent soil erosion and its pollution at some extent. 

Why we are dependent on plants? Because

  1. They provide our daily and basic needs, e.g: fuels, cloth, food etc
  2. They maintain our environment purifies air,  produces oxygen which is crucial for us. 
  3. Maintain temperature by reducing the effects of global warming. 
So if autotrophs were not on Earth, the heterotrophs would die, not be able to survive.
So here I concluded that Humans will not be able to survive even there are lesser number of plants available on earth.  
If we don't stop harming our environment then may be these situations arise that one day we have not enough resources to survive!

Water Pollution

                    
Water is the basic requirement of every living organisms, and it is daily consumed. Many diseases spread through water. There are several reasons which contaminate the water, like toxic chemicals from industries, garbage,  and sewage. 

Pollution in Water                                                                   

Fresh water is the most important sources of life on the earth. Any living thing may survive without food for days however it is impossible to imagine life without water and oxygen. The ever-increasing human population enhances the demand of water for purpose like drinking, washing, performing industrial processes, irrigation crops, arranging swimming pools and others water-sports centre. Water pollution is done by the people of all over the world because of increasing demand and competition of luxuries life. Waste product from the people activities are spoiling the whole water and decreasing the amount of oxygen available in the water. When we drink the polluted water, harmful chemicals and other pollutants goes inside our body and deteriorates all the body organs functioning and puts our lives in danger. Such harmful chemicals also disturb the lives of animals and plants greatly. When plants absorb dirty water through their roots, the stop growing and die.
Such pollutants are altering the physical, chemical, thermal and biological characteristics of the water and adversely affecting the lives inside as well as outside the water.  It is the main issue affecting human lives in many ways. It is the most dangerous and worst form of pollution putting lives in danger. The water we drink daily looks very clear however contained verities of microscopic pollutants floating inn it. Our earth is covered with water almost 70% of total so a little change in it could affect lives worldwide. Water pollution is the big environmental and social issue all across the world. It has reached to the critical point now. All the pollutants are very harmful to the environment.

      Sources

  • Agricultural pollution
  • River dumping
  • Marine dumping
  • Oil pollution
  • Nuclear Reactor's Hot water/ Hot water released by industries (Thermal Pollution in Water

      Effects

  • Ground water contamination from pesticides causes reproductive damage within wildlife in ecosystems
  • Swimming in and drinking contaminated water causes skin rashes and health problem like cancer, reproductive problem, typhoid fever and stomach sickness in human
  • Human-produces litter of items such as plastic bag can get aquatic animals caught and killed from suffocation
  • Water pollution causes flooding due to the accumulation of the solid waste in the streams and rivers

      Remedies

  • Do not throw industrial, farm or other waste material o sewage into the river
  • City water should be treated properly
  • Oil spill should be prevented
  • Dead bodies should not throw in water bodies
  • Boil water before drinking


Health effects of Water Pollution 

Consumption or use of contaminated water may cause severe diseases: 
Contaminated water is unhealthy and unfit for the health, it creates gastrointestinal problems which may be severe if contaminant is virus or bacteria. Sometimes viral infections are also spread through the water e. g Ebola infection. 
Children who consume unhealthy water have poor growth and development. 


So, Always consume clean water, 
Comment what are you doing for preventing water pollution? 

Wednesday, September 05, 2018

Air Pollution


Air is the outer covering and an essential part of our environment. Air provide oxygen and carbondioxide to animals and plants. Air is the only source of them, that's why we breathe.

Pollution in Air

It refers to the contamination of atmospheric air due to presence of some substance and gases which have poisonous effect. 
Day by day the fresh air of our environment is getting polluted due to mixing of biological molecules and some other harmful material. Such polluted air is causing health problems. It is most important environmental issues which requires to be notices and solved by the efforts of all of us. It is the most serious problem of the current time all over the world mostly in the large cities because of the huge level of industrialisation. The release of such air pollutants in heavy concentrations such as smog, solid materials, harmful gases, particles, paint, batteries contain lead, cigarettes release carbon monoxide, transport means releases carbon dioxide and other toxic substances to the atmosphere etc are getting settled over the city, causing air pollution and health hazards to the people. It is continuously damaging the whole ecological system and affecting the lives of plants and animal as well. Lots of dirty waste produced by people on daily basis especially in the big cities polluting the whole atmospheric air to a great extent. The release of gaseous pollutants from burning fuel of motors vehicles, industrial processes, burning of garbage, etc are contributing to the air pollution. Some natural pollutants like pollen, dust, soil particles, natural gas, etc are also the sources of air pollution. They are also called air pollutants.
Causes and contributions of countries in air pollution
   

      Sources

  • Mobile sources- such as car, trucks, trains, and buses
  • Stationary sources- such as power plant, oil refineries, industrial facilities, and factories
  • Area sources- such as agricultural areas, cities, and wood burning fireplaces


       Effects 

  • Acid rain
  • Ozone layer depletion
  • Green house effect and global warming


       Remedies 

  • Avoid smoking indoors
  • Use craft supplies in well-ventilated areas
  • Make sure gas stove is well ventilated
  • Remove carpeting if possible
  • Filters must be used in chimneys of industries

Health Effects of Air pollution 

Every living species requires oxygen except plants they require Carbondioxide for their metabolism and other body requirements. If along with oxygen other particles and molecules enter in body have adverse effects on health:-
  • Alveolar Damage/Shrinkage
  • Metabolic disability 
  • Toxcity in body
  • Asthma 
  • Head ache
  • Poor growth 
  • Low life span
  • Heart Problems 



Effects of Air pollution showing impact on heart,  lungs and other body parts
Health effects of Air Pollution 





So, what do you think about what are some other ways to prevent air pollution and our earth. comment..!!.. ............... 

Monday, September 03, 2018

Pollution | A Threat to Environment

                                                                               Environment and Pollution 

No doubt humans are eradicating and disturbing the equilibrium of the environment. Our environment have all the necessary things which a living organism required, but what we are doing we are exhausting and making unavailable for others if not then for our future generations. Pollution is the main reason behind this because more over the pollution lesser is the growth of environment ( here I say 'Ecosystem').
Environmental Pollution
Relationships between the pollution with each other

Pollution 

Pollution means presence of anything in the system which is not naturally found in that or presence in unproportionate manner. It is the process of making the environment land water and air dirty by adding harmful substance to it which causes imbalance in the environment.
Environmental pollution is a serious problem of the industrialized societies. The industrial development & the green revolution have adversely affected the environment. Day by day pollution has been increasing & imbalance has threatened the very survival of all forms of life. It is threat to the whole world. People have converted the life supporting system of the entire living world into their own resources and have vastly disturbed the natural ecological balance. It is defined as the unfavourable alteration of our surroundings. In India allay the source of water lie rivers lakes ponds and wells have been polluted and are unfit for drinking. As a result of the increased use of fertilizers, the rivers seas and oceans have become contaminated with harmful pollutants. Pollution is a product of people activities which directly or indirectly  responsible for the changes in environment. All changes in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of land, air, or water than harm human life and other living things. Population explosion, rapid industrialisation deforestation unplanned urbanization scientific and technological advancement. 
Pollution occurs in different forms like air, water, soil, radioactive, noise, heat, light. All forms of pollution have two sources of matter like point and non-point sources. The point sources are easy to find while the non-point sources are hard to find and hard to control. 

 TYPES OF POLLUTION 

Different types of pollutions occur and effect on people and the environment as a whole.

1) Air pollution

It refers to the contamination of atmospheric air due to presence of some substance and gases which have poisonous effect. Day by day the fresh air of our environment is getting polluted due to mixing of biological molecules and some other harmful material. Such polluted air is causing health problems.

2) Water pollution

Fresh water is the most important sources of life on the earth. Any living thing may survive without food for days however it is impossible to imagine life without water and oxygen. The ever-increasing human population enhances the demand of water for purpose like drinking, washing, performing industrial processes, irrigation crops, arranging swimming pools and others water-sports centre. Water pollution is done by the people of all over the world because of increasing demand and competition of luxuries life. 

3) Soil pollution

It occurs due to incorporation of unwanted chemicals in the soil due to human activities. Use of insecticides and pesticides absorbs the nitrogen compounds from the soil making it unfit for plants to drive nutrition from. Soil pollution refers to the mixing of human made chemicals like industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals, and other harmful disposal of wastes from houses, factories, etc. into the natural soil which causes land degradation and makes it unfit for the cropping.

4) Radioactive pollution

It is highly dangerous when it occurs. It can occur dur to nuclear plant malfunctions, improper nuclear waste disposal, accidents, etc. It can cause cancer, infertility, blindness, defects at the time of birth; can sterile soil and affect air and water. Radioactivity is radioactive decay or emission of particles (neuron, proton or heavier particles) from an atom or nucleus. Recently radioactive elements are also used in research and medicine. These pollutants are directly linked to nuclear energy.

5) Noise pollution

The unwanted sound that can have deleterious effects on human health and environmental quality. It is commonly generated inside many industrial facilities and some other workplaces, but it also comes from highway, railway, and airplane traffic and from outdoor construction activities. It has become a serious problem for human health. The noisy atmosphere in which we are living is an obstacle in securing good health. 

6) Thermal pollution

Thermal pollution is the degradation of water quality by any process that changes ambient water temperature. Thermal pollution is usually associated with increases of water temperature in a stream, lake or ocean due to the discharge of heated water from industrial processes, such as the generation of electricity. Increase in ambient water temperature also occur in streams where shading vegetation along the banks is removed or where sediments have made the water more turbid. It is due to excess heat in the environment creating unwanted changes over long time periods; due to huge number of industrial plants, deforestation and air pollution.

7) Light pollution    

It occurs due to prominent excess illumination of an area. It is largely visible in big cities, on bill boards, in sports or entertainment events at the night. In residential areas the lives of the inhabitants are greatly affected by this. It also affects the astronomical observations and activities by making the stars almost invisible. Bright lightning in the function, big cities, etc. causes light pollution. Light pollution is also known as photopollution, it is the presence of anthropogenic light in the night environment. Light pollution occurs at night and is obtrusive, inappropriate or excessive artificial light.








Saturday, September 01, 2018

Biotic v/s Abiotic

Have you heard these two terms yet, in environmental science these two words plays vital role and they have unique meaning. Whenever we talk about ecosystem we must include Biotic and Abiotic.  Why? How? Read carefully! !

Biotic 

The living biomass/component of ecosystem is commonly referred as Biotic.  The biotic components interact directly with other living organisms in the ecosystem. Mostly our ecosystem is balanced by the biotic components. If the living organisms are replaced by non-living than the ecosystem have no meaning.
Biotic comprises of : fungi,  bacteria,  plants, and all other living species. 

Effects of Biotic factors:-

They affect directly or indirectly to living species within an environment. The biotic factors include disease, parasitism and predation. The smaller organisms spread disease by finding higher species as host some become parasite and some harmful.  While the higher species kill the smaller ones and feeds on them.  All these interaction you will find in food chain of ecosystem.

Abiotic 

The non living matter present in the ecosystem is all Abiotic components. They don't play any role in biomass but they influence them most. They act like environmental factors on the biotic components. However Biotic and Abiotic are interdependet on each other.  
Abiotic comprises of : water,  soil,  pH,  temperature, sun light,  and air etc. 

Effects of Abiotic factors:-

Abiotic factors affects the ability of the species to survive and reproduce  in the environment. Some times these factors are favorable and some time not. Abiotic factors limit the growth of weak organisms, those who have ability to pass in harsh environmental conditions can survive this limits and controls thier population within the environment.

Interaction between Biotic and Abiotic

The significance of Biotic and Abiotic factors comes with their interactions with each other. For an healthy ecosystem all the interactions need to be in a place. 
A common example of abiotic interaction in plants. Water, sunlight and carbon dioxide are necessary for plants to grow. The biotic interaction is that plants use water, sunlight and carbon dioxide to create their own nourishment through a process called photosynthesis. On a larger scale, abiotic interactions refer to patterns such as climate and seasonality. Factors such as temperature, humidity and the presence or absence of seasons affect the ecosystem. For instance, some ecosystems experience cold winters with a lot of snow. An animal such as a fox within this ecosystem adapts to these abiotic factors by growing a thick, white-colored coat in the winter. Decomposers such as bacteria and fungi are examples of biotic interactions on such a scale. Decomposers function by breaking down dead organisms. This process returns the basic components of the organisms to the soil, allowing them to be reused within that ecosystem.
Thus the interactions of the biotic and abiotic factors makes a healthy and growing ecosystem.