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BIOTECHNOLOGY

Microbial Enzymes : Industrial Applications




Enzymes used in industries


Biocatalytic capability of microorganisms have been utilized for a considerable length of time to deliver bread, wine, vinegar and other normal items without understanding the biochemical basis of their ingredients. Microbial Enzymes have become an interest of modern growing industries due their widespread uses in industries and medicine based on their stability, catalytic activity and the ease of production and its optimization as compared to any plant and animal based enzymes.

enzymes production

The application of Enzyme in various industries (e.g. Food, Agriculture, Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals) is growing rapidly due to reduced processing time, low energy input, cost effectiveness, non-toxic and eco-friendly properties. These microbial enzymes are well capable of degrading toxic compounds of industrial and domestic waste (i.e.: phenol compounds, nutriles, amines etc.) either via conversion or degradation.
Enzymes are large macromolecules composed of polymers of amino acids connected by amide bonds, ranging from kilodalton (insulin) to megadalton (ribosome) in molecular mass. Catalytic site of these macromolecules is often buried deep within hydrophobic pockets, which determines the specificity for their substrate. This specificity of enzyme to catalyze reactions between one types of chemical compound over the other provides the basis of its classification and name. With the great advancement achieved in the area of biochemistry after 1940, a large number of enzymes were isolated and characterized, and therefore, it was necessary to regulate the enzyme nomenclature. Thus, International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB) in consultation with International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) established an Enzyme Commission (EC) to be in charge of guiding the naming and systematic classification for enzymes. According to the type of reaction catalyzed, the enzyme commission has classified the enzymes into six main classes, mentioned in below table:




Class

Reactions

Enzymes

Oxidoreductases

Transfer of hydrogen or oxygen or electrons between molecules

Dehydrogenases, oxidases, oxygenases, peroxidases

Transferases

Transfer of groups of atoms from one molecule to another

Fructosyltransferases, transketolases, acyltransferases, transaminases

Hydrolases

Hydrolytic cleavage of bonds

Proteases, amylases, acylases, lipases, phosphatases, cutinases

Lyases

Non-hydrolytic cleavage by elimination or addition reactions

Pectate lyases, hydratases, dehydratases, decarboxylases, fumarase, argino succinase

Isomerases

Transfer of group from one position to another within one molecule

Isomerases, epimerases, racemases


Modern Recombinant DNA technology has been more focused on producing species which are specific to the certain enzyme production by manipulating and directing their genes. Below are the lists of the Industrial enzymes popular in the 21st century Enzyme market.


 


Industry


Enzyme


Function


Microorganisms


Dairy

Acid proteinase

Milk coagulation

Aspergillus sp.

Neutral proteinase

Faster cheese ripening, debittering

Bacillus subtilis, A. oryzae

Lipase

Faster cheese ripening, flavor customized cheese,

Aspergillus niger, A. oryzae

Lactase (β-galactosidase)

Lactose reduced milk and whey products

Escherichia coli, Kluyveromyces sp.

Aminopeptidase

Faster cheese ripening

Lactobacillus sp.

catalase

Cheese processing

Aspergillus niger



Baking

Amylase

Flour adjustment, bread softness

Aspergillus sp., Bacillus sp.

Maltogenic
α-Amylase

Enhance shelf life of breads

Bacillus stearothermophilus

Xylanase

Dough conditioning

Aspergillus niger

Lipase

Dough stability and conditioning

Aspergillus niger

Glucose oxidase

Dough strengthening

Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum

Transglutaminase

Laminated dough strength

Streptoverticillium sp., streptomyces sp.



Beverage

Pectinase

Depectinization

Aspergillus oryzae, Penicillium funiculosum

Glucose oxidase

Oxygen removal from beer

Aspergillus niger

Cellulase

Fruit liquefaction

Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma atroviride

α-Amylase

Starch hydrolysis

Bacillus, Aspergillus

β-Amylase

Starch hydrolysis

Bacillus, Streptomyces, Rhizopus

β-Glucanase

Restrict haze formation

Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus spp.

protease

Restrict haze formation

Aspergillus niger

Pullulanase

Starch saccharification

Bacillus sp., Klebsiella sp.

Naringinase

Debittering

Aspergillus niger

limoninase

Debittering

Aspergillus niger, A. oryzae

Aminopeptidases

Protein breakdown during mashing

Lactobacillus brevis, L. plantarum

Glucose oxidase

Oxygen removal from beer

Aspergillus niger

Cellulase

Fruit liquefaction

Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma atroviride

α-Amylase

Starch hydrolysis

Bacillus, Aspergillus

β-Amylase

Starch hydrolysis

Bacillus, Streptomyces, Rhizopus

β-Glucanase

Restrict haze formation

Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus spp.

protease

Restrict haze formation

Aspergillus niger

Pullulanase

Starch saccharification

Bacillus sp., Klebsiella sp.

Naringinase

Debittering

Aspergillus niger

limoninase

Debittering

Aspergillus niger, A. oryzae

Aminopeptidases

Protein breakdown during mashing

Lactobacillus brevis, L. plantarum



Animal feed

Phytase

Hydrolyze phytic acid to release phosphorous

Aspergillus niger

Xylanase

Enhanced digestibility of starch

Aspergillus sp., Bacillus sp.

β-glucanase

Digestive aid

Aspergillus niger



Pulp and paper

Lipase

Pitch control

Candida Antarctica

Protease

Biofilm removal

Bacillus subtilis

Amylase

Deinking, drainage improvement

Bacillus licheniformis

Xylanase

Bleach boosting

Trichoderma reesei, Thermomyces lanuginosus, Aureobasidium pullulans

Laccase

Non-chlorine bleaching, delignification

Bacillus subtilis

Cellulase

Deinking, drainage improvement

Bacillus sp., Aspergillus niger



Polymer

Lipase

Polycondensation, ring-opening polymerization of lactones, carbonates

Candida Antarctica

Laccase

Polymerization of bisphenol A

Trametes hirsuta

Glucose oxidase

Polymerization of anilines

Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum

Transglutaminase

Crosslinking of protein

Streptomyces mobaraensis

Tyrosinase

Polymerization of lignin and chitosan

Trichoderma reesei



Detergent

Amylase

Carbohydrate stain removal

Aspergillus sp., Bacillus subtilis

Lipase

Fat stain elimination

Aspergillus oryzae, A. flavus,

Protease

Protein stain removal

Aspergillus oryzae, Bacillus subtilis

Cellulase

Color clarification

Aspergillus niger, Bacillus sp.

Cutinase

Triglyceride removal

Fusarium solani f. pisi

Mannanase

Mannan spot removal

Bacillus sp.



Leather

Alkaline protease

Dehairing, bating

Alcaligenes faecalis

Neutral Protease

Dehairing, soaking

Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Bacillus subtilis

Lipase

Degreasing

Aspergillus oryzae, A. flavus,

Amylase

Fiber splitting

Aspergillus sp., Bacillus subtilis



Cosmetics

Superoxide dismutase

Free radical scavenging, skin care

Corynebacterium
Glutamicum, Lactobacillus plantarum

Protease

Removal of dead skin

Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Bacillus subtilis

Endoglycosidase

Teeth and gum tissue care

Mucor hiemalis

laccase

Hair dye

Bacillus subtilis, Trametes versicolor

lipase

Skin care

Aspergillus oryzae, A. flavus



Organic synthesis

Lipase

Synthesis of pharmaceuticals, polymers, biodiesels, biosurfactants

Aspergillus oryzae, A. flavus

Glycosyl tranferase

Synthesis of oligosaccharides

Bacillus sp.

Nitrile hydratase

Synthesis of acrylamide, butyramide, nicotinamide

Rhodococcus rhodochrous PA-34, Bacillus sp. APB-6

Glucose isomerase

Production of High fructose corn syrup

Corynebacterium sp., streptomyces murinus

Acyltransferase

Synthesis of hydroxamic acids

Bacillus sp. APB-6

Laccase

Production of textile dyes, cosmetic pigments, flavor agents, and pesticides

Trametes versicolor, Bacillus subtilis



Waste management

Amidase

Degradation of nitriles containing wastes

Rhodococcus erythropolis

Amylase

Bioremediation of vegetables wastes

B. licheniformis, Aspergillus sp.

Amyloglucosidase

Starch hydrolysis for bioremediation

Aspergillus niger

Lipase

Degradation of crude oil hydrocarbons

Aspergillus oryzae, Candida tropicalis

Nitrile hydratase

Degradation of nitriles containing wastes

Rhodococcus sp.

Protease

Bioremediation of keratinic wastes

Chrysosporium keratinophilum

Laccase

Degradation of waste containing olefin unit, polyurethane and phenolic compounds

Trametes versicolor

Cutinase

Degradation of plastics, Polycaprolactone

Fusarium solani f. pisi

Manganese peroxidase

Degradation of phenolic compounds

Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Coprinus cinereus

Lignin peroxidase

Degradation of phenolic compounds

Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Coprinus cinereus

Oxygenase

Degradation of halogenated contaminants

Pseudomonas sp., Rhodococcus sp.


 source & credit National Center For Biotechnology And National Health Institute



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