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Water Pollution

Water is the basic requirement of every living organisms, and it is daily consumed. Many diseases spread through water. There are several reasons which contaminate the water, like toxic chemicals from industries, garbage,  and sewage. 
Lady causing water pollution Causes of water pollution

Pollution in Water                                                                   

Fresh water is the most important sources of life on the earth. Any living thing may survive without food for days however it is impossible to imagine life without water and oxygen. The ever-increasing human population enhances the demand of water for purpose like drinking, washing, performing industrial processes, irrigation crops, arranging swimming pools and others water-sports centre. Water pollution is done by the people of all over the world because of increasing demand and competition of luxuries life. Waste product from the people activities are spoiling the whole water and decreasing the amount of oxygen available in the water. When we drink the polluted water, harmful chemicals and other pollutants goes inside our body and deteriorates all the body organs functioning and puts our lives in danger. Such harmful chemicals also disturb the lives of animals and plants greatly. When plants absorb dirty water through their roots, the stop growing and die.
Such pollutants are altering the physical, chemical, thermal and biological characteristics of the water and adversely affecting the lives inside as well as outside the water.  It is the main issue affecting human lives in many ways. It is the most dangerous and worst form of pollution putting lives in danger. The water we drink daily looks very clear however contained verities of microscopic pollutants floating inn it. Our earth is covered with water almost 70% of total so a little change in it could affect lives worldwide. Water pollution is the big environmental and social issue all across the world. It has reached to the critical point now. All the pollutants are very harmful to the environment.


  • Agricultural pollution
  • River dumping
  • Marine dumping
  • Oil pollution
  • Nuclear Reactor's Hot water/ Hot water released by industries (Thermal Pollution in Water


  • Ground water contamination from pesticides causes reproductive damage within wildlife in ecosystems
  • Swimming in and drinking contaminated water causes skin rashes and health problem like cancer, reproductive problem, typhoid fever and stomach sickness in human
  • Human-produces litter of items such as plastic bag can get aquatic animals caught and killed from suffocation
  • Water pollution causes flooding due to the accumulation of the solid waste in the streams and rivers


  • Do not throw industrial, farm or other waste material o sewage into the river
  • City water should be treated properly
  • Oil spill should be prevented
  • Dead bodies should not throw in water bodies
  • Boil water before drinking

Health effects of Water Pollution 

Consumption or use of contaminated water may cause severe diseases: 
Contaminated water is unhealthy and unfit for the health, it creates gastrointestinal problems which may be severe if contaminant is virus or bacteria. Sometimes viral infections are also spread through the water e. g Ebola infection. 
Children who consume unhealthy water have poor growth and development. 

So, Always consume clean water, 
Comment what are you doing for preventing water pollution? 


Air Pollution

Air is the outer covering and an essential part of our environment. Air provide oxygen and carbondioxide to animals and plants. Air is the only source of them, that's why we breathe.

Pollution in Air

It refers to the contamination of atmospheric air due to presence of some substance and gases which have poisonous effect. 
Day by day the fresh air of our environment is getting polluted due to mixing of biological molecules and some other harmful material. Such polluted air is causing health problems. It is most important environmental issues which requires to be notices and solved by the efforts of all of us. It is the most serious problem of the current time all over the world mostly in the large cities because of the huge level of industrialisation. The release of such air pollutants in heavy concentrations such as smog, solid materials, harmful gases, particles, paint, batteries contain lead, cigarettes release carbon monoxide, transport means releases carbon dioxide and other toxic substances to the atmosphere etc are getting settled over the city, causing air pollution and health hazards to the people. It is continuously damaging the whole ecological system and affecting the lives of plants and animal as well. Lots of dirty waste produced by people on daily basis especially in the big cities polluting the whole atmospheric air to a great extent. The release of gaseous pollutants from burning fuel of motors vehicles, industrial processes, burning of garbage, etc are contributing to the air pollution. Some natural pollutants like pollen, dust, soil particles, natural gas, etc are also the sources of air pollution. They are also called air pollutants.
Causes and contributions of countries in air pollution


  • Mobile sources- such as car, trucks, trains, and buses
  • Stationary sources- such as power plant, oil refineries, industrial facilities, and factories
  • Area sources- such as agricultural areas, cities, and wood burning fireplaces


  • Acid rain
  • Ozone layer depletion
  • Green house effect and global warming


  • Avoid smoking indoors
  • Use craft supplies in well-ventilated areas
  • Make sure gas stove is well ventilated
  • Remove carpeting if possible
  • Filters must be used in chimneys of industries

Health Effects of Air pollution 

Every living species requires oxygen except plants they require Carbondioxide for their metabolism and other body requirements. If along with oxygen other particles and molecules enter in body have adverse effects on health:-
  • Alveolar Damage/Shrinkage
  • Metabolic disability 
  • Toxcity in body
  • Asthma 
  • Head ache
  • Poor growth 
  • Low life span
  • Heart Problems 

Effects of Air pollution showing impact on heart,  lungs and other body parts
Health effects of Air Pollution 



So, what do you think about what are some other ways to prevent air pollution and our earth. comment..!!.. ............... 


Pollution | A Threat to Environment

                                                                               Environment and Pollution 

No doubt humans are eradicating and disturbing the equilibrium of the environment. Our environment have all the necessary things which a living organism required, but what we are doing we are exhausting and making unavailable for others if not then for our future generations. Pollution is the main reason behind this because more over the pollution lesser is the growth of environment ( here I say 'Ecosystem').
Environmental Pollution
Relationships between the pollution with each other


Pollution means presence of anything in the system which is not naturally found in that or presence in unproportionate manner. It is the process of making the environment land water and air dirty by adding harmful substance to it which causes imbalance in the environment.
Environmental pollution is a serious problem of the industrialized societies. The industrial development & the green revolution have adversely affected the environment. Day by day pollution has been increasing & imbalance has threatened the very survival of all forms of life. It is threat to the whole world. People have converted the life supporting system of the entire living world into their own resources and have vastly disturbed the natural ecological balance. It is defined as the unfavourable alteration of our surroundings. In India allay the source of water lie rivers lakes ponds and wells have been polluted and are unfit for drinking. As a result of the increased use of fertilizers, the rivers seas and oceans have become contaminated with harmful pollutants. Pollution is a product of people activities which directly or indirectly  responsible for the changes in environment. All changes in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of land, air, or water than harm human life and other living things. Population explosion, rapid industrialisation deforestation unplanned urbanization scientific and technological advancement. 
Pollution occurs in different forms like air, water, soil, radioactive, noise, heat, light. All forms of pollution have two sources of matter like point and non-point sources. The point sources are easy to find while the non-point sources are hard to find and hard to control. 


Different types of pollutions occur and effect on people and the environment as a whole.

1) Air pollution

It refers to the contamination of atmospheric air due to presence of some substance and gases which have poisonous effect. Day by day the fresh air of our environment is getting polluted due to mixing of biological molecules and some other harmful material. Such polluted air is causing health problems.

2) Water pollution

Fresh water is the most important sources of life on the earth. Any living thing may survive without food for days however it is impossible to imagine life without water and oxygen. The ever-increasing human population enhances the demand of water for purpose like drinking, washing, performing industrial processes, irrigation crops, arranging swimming pools and others water-sports centre. Water pollution is done by the people of all over the world because of increasing demand and competition of luxuries life. 

3) Soil pollution

It occurs due to incorporation of unwanted chemicals in the soil due to human activities. Use of insecticides and pesticides absorbs the nitrogen compounds from the soil making it unfit for plants to drive nutrition from. Soil pollution refers to the mixing of human made chemicals like industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals, and other harmful disposal of wastes from houses, factories, etc. into the natural soil which causes land degradation and makes it unfit for the cropping.

4) Radioactive pollution

It is highly dangerous when it occurs. It can occur dur to nuclear plant malfunctions, improper nuclear waste disposal, accidents, etc. It can cause cancer, infertility, blindness, defects at the time of birth; can sterile soil and affect air and water. Radioactivity is radioactive decay or emission of particles (neuron, proton or heavier particles) from an atom or nucleus. Recently radioactive elements are also used in research and medicine. These pollutants are directly linked to nuclear energy.

5) Noise pollution

The unwanted sound that can have deleterious effects on human health and environmental quality. It is commonly generated inside many industrial facilities and some other workplaces, but it also comes from highway, railway, and airplane traffic and from outdoor construction activities. It has become a serious problem for human health. The noisy atmosphere in which we are living is an obstacle in securing good health. 

6) Thermal pollution

Thermal pollution is the degradation of water quality by any process that changes ambient water temperature. Thermal pollution is usually associated with increases of water temperature in a stream, lake or ocean due to the discharge of heated water from industrial processes, such as the generation of electricity. Increase in ambient water temperature also occur in streams where shading vegetation along the banks is removed or where sediments have made the water more turbid. It is due to excess heat in the environment creating unwanted changes over long time periods; due to huge number of industrial plants, deforestation and air pollution.

7) Light pollution    

It occurs due to prominent excess illumination of an area. It is largely visible in big cities, on bill boards, in sports or entertainment events at the night. In residential areas the lives of the inhabitants are greatly affected by this. It also affects the astronomical observations and activities by making the stars almost invisible. Bright lightning in the function, big cities, etc. causes light pollution. Light pollution is also known as photopollution, it is the presence of anthropogenic light in the night environment. Light pollution occurs at night and is obtrusive, inappropriate or excessive artificial light.


Biotic v/s Abiotic

Have you heard these two terms yet, in environmental science these two words plays vital role and they have unique meaning. Whenever we talk about ecosystem we must include Biotic and Abiotic.  Why? How? Read carefully! !


The living biomass/component of ecosystem is commonly referred as Biotic.  The biotic components interact directly with other living organisms in the ecosystem. Mostly our ecosystem is balanced by the biotic components. If the living organisms are replaced by non-living than the ecosystem have no meaning.
Biotic comprises of : fungi,  bacteria,  plants, and all other living species.
Performing chemistry experiments

Effects of Biotic factors:-

They affect directly or indirectly to living species within an environment. The biotic factors include disease, parasitism and predation. The smaller organisms spread disease by finding higher species as host some become parasite and some harmful.  While the higher species kill the smaller ones and feeds on them.  All these interaction you will find in food chain of ecosystem.


The non living matter present in the ecosystem is all Abiotic components. They don't play any role in biomass but they influence them most. They act like environmental factors on the biotic components. However Biotic and Abiotic are interdependet on each other.  
Abiotic comprises of : water,  soil,  pH,  temperature, sun light,  and air etc. 

Effects of Abiotic factors:-

Abiotic factors affects the ability of the species to survive and reproduce  in the environment. Some times these factors are favorable and some time not. Abiotic factors limit the growth of weak organisms, those who have ability to pass in harsh environmental conditions can survive this limits and controls thier population within the environment.

Interaction between Biotic and Abiotic

The significance of Biotic and Abiotic factors comes with their interactions with each other. For an healthy ecosystem all the interactions need to be in a place. 
A common example of abiotic interaction in plants. Water, sunlight and carbon dioxide are necessary for plants to grow. The biotic interaction is that plants use water, sunlight and carbon dioxide to create their own nourishment through a process called photosynthesis. On a larger scale, abiotic interactions refer to patterns such as climate and seasonality. Factors such as temperature, humidity and the presence or absence of seasons affect the ecosystem. For instance, some ecosystems experience cold winters with a lot of snow. An animal such as a fox within this ecosystem adapts to these abiotic factors by growing a thick, white-colored coat in the winter. Decomposers such as bacteria and fungi are examples of biotic interactions on such a scale. Decomposers function by breaking down dead organisms. This process returns the basic components of the organisms to the soil, allowing them to be reused within that ecosystem.
Thus the interactions of the biotic and abiotic factors makes a healthy and growing ecosystem.



Before starting I must clear that this article is not intend to hurt any religion or caste these are the personal experience and theory given by me.
Since my childhood I only think about evils,  gods and ghosts that what possibility that they exist?  even my grandparents tells stories of them which are pretty much interesting and have a lot of moral and ethical values. As I grow up, My interest takes me towards science which completely denies their existence. So I recall the stories and the moral values in them and tried to find my answers. I found that many years ago when the humans are developing they are living and behaving same like animals, some of them evolved themselves better and used their constructive mind to make humans better,  we call them ''Rishi-Muni'' or ''Sadhu''. In the Indian history you will find these Rishi's have a wide and important role in society.  Actually they are the Doctors, Scientists and Engineers at that time,  you may find all that in Vedas,  and Indian epic stories.

How the concept of GOD came in existence! 

According to historical aspects  when humans behaved ruthless and become unkind, everywhere is crime and people don't think of their personal life then the Rishi or Sadhu came to an point that If they have some kind of fear and hope then they might become good person and get busy in their own work. Keeping this fact in mind they created a word GOD, and said that he is our leader we should follow him worship him and we all are child of god they created us. And then they introduced lot of stories about GOD which are being used to tell stories to next generation for giving moral and ethical values.

How the concept of GHOST came in existence! 

Even when the most of people starting believing in GOD and his existence some might have doubt or start going against him. They do their crimes and evil deeds at night (mostly night). Then the Rishi's have some problems to face them so they Created a concept of Ghost and signifies them that they are the bad souls of living ones who are killed by someone and they are very dangerous. They take revenge of their death. By this they almost controlled the situation and for making believe strongly they created lot of stories. 

How the personal and social problems controlled by Rishi's? 

When every one is living their life they do their daily works and uses the natural resources well. They cut trees and plants without any boundaries. Then Rishi's realised that our environment is on threat if it is going like this than soon there are no plants and trees.  Then they tried to teach them the importance of trees and plants along with uses and their application. But they failed because people didn't understand well. Then the Rishi's got an idea that why shouldn't we relate them with their GODs. But relating all plants with religion creates a doubt in people's mind so they related important plants and trees with God and large, big and woody with Ghosts. They thought by this people learn their usefulness, but it has an opposite reaction they start worshipping them planted in their gardens and at their homes. The big trees remains part of forests and remain undisturbed long years. But the protection of environment is successful. 
Every time they have problems they find suitable solution which is scientific but related with religion applicable for everyone.So what are your opinions about this.! 
Comment If you have experienced any thing like this......... ....!!!!!

Amino Acids | Health Supplement

  Amino acids are the building blocks of protein as well as of the body. Some of the amino acids which are the derivatives of the essential amino acids are very useful for growth and development however human body can synthesize them but during stress of poor metabolic activities they may be externally supplemented. Here are few of them described:                                                 

L-Glutamine is an amino acid. Generally it is synthesized in the body in a limited amount. During stress the requirement of glutamine is increased by the body. Glutamine is found in muscles. The mineral salts are also added to compensate the loss of ions during the metabolic activity.
The amino acid is synthesized in the body in the form of glutamic acid but in limited amount during stress. The dietary source of glutamine is beef and chicken. Thus it become hard for vegans to meet their requirement. In that case glutamine is externally supplemented in the body.


  • Build immunity
  • Gut function
  • Helps to counteract oxidative stress
  • Growth and development of muscles 

L-Arginine is an amino acid require

Advancement and Challenges in Biopesticides Development

The science is as yet thought to be youthful and developing. A portion of the Biopesticides is being worked on, and may end up being fantastic contrasting options to the compound pesticides. A large number of them depend on the locally accessible plants like Neem, Garlic, and Triphala and so forth which can be effectively prepared and made accessible to the ranchers to enhance the Biopesticides utilization.
Bimolecules are being the most recent activity which had been assumed a critical part in headway and proficiency of Biopesticides. (Engineers, 2008). The GMO's are being the most recent and new headway in the field of Biopesticides. r-DNA innovation is another and perfect progression accomplished in the field of pesticides (e.g.CRISPR-cas framework with single protein effectors).


Nano level materials encourage the nuclear level specificity and activity of pesticides just in the focused on condition including particular pH, temperature and nearness of particular mixes. Nanopesticide can decreases the issues which are assessed in compound pesticides (vulnerability on the long haul causing malignancy, liver harm, neural issue and immunotoxicity) and show more bioavailability than conventional Biopesticides. Nanoparticle Bacillus thuringiensis have demonstrated expanded efficiency, great scattering and wet capacity, biodegradable in soil and condition, not so much lethal but rather more photograph generative, with surely knew harmful energy and dangerous elements, and are observed to be steady. If there should arise an occurrence of growth, Nano-chitosan definition had been set up by various techniques. Radical unite polymerization of acrylic corrosive onto chitosan demonstrated antifungal and insecticidal movement against some chose soybean seed borne organisms. Trichoderma based compounds (chitin and glucans) are known to demonstrate bug safe movement. Then again plant based Nano definitions, for example, eucalyptus based Nano emulsions was found to display antimicrobial movement.

Recombinant DNA Biotechnology

Recombinant DNA innovation have been utilized to enhance bacterial bug spray viability and connected to enhance larvicides by controlling and recombining quality for vector control. Mosquitocidal Cyt and Cry proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis alongside the paired poison of Bacillus sphaericus were joined to display enhanced adequacy against culex species. These recombinant builds were utilized as bug sprays as well as indicated compelling control of the mosquito vectors for Dengue fever, filariasis and malaria. The first recombinant vector was created in th field of agriculture to prevent the crops of cotton from insect Bt cotton.  This technology is developing and untill we insert genes which are resistance of insects and pests. 

Future Aspects 

The Bimolecules particularly protein particles are intended to create cutting edge pesticides, which work effectively on bothers. It has been engaged that Biopesticides should address the issue of end client, these are: 
  • targeted, maintainable and earth agreeable 
  • safe for nourishment utilize and human wellbeing 
  • Effective and simple to use.


The development of Biopesticides in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) system by combining ecological science in to genomic technologies.
  • RNA interference can’t be commercialized as it has negative impacts on the plants by itself. 
  • The gene manipulation is not work as expected in some cases.
  • Value added benefits, such as plant health, yields and quality and an increase in beneficials, both traditional and organic cultivation.
  • International Journal of Biotechnology and Biomedical Sciences p-ISSN 2454-4582, e￾ISSN 2454-7808, Volume 2, Number 1; January-June, 2016 pp. 73-77 “Review of Current Research Advances in Microbial and Phyto-biopesticides” by S Krishna Sundari1*, Aditi Singh2 and Pooja Yadava3 1Biotechnology Department JIIT, Noida 2,3JIIT, NOIDA E-mail:,, 18.
  • Engineers, 2008 NPCS Board of Consultant and Engineers ASIA PACIFIC BUSINESS PRESS inc. 1/10/2008

CLONING | Advantage to Prokaryotes or US!

Scientifically the species which are the exact copies of their parents are termed as clones and the process is called as cloning. Clones are formed by asexual reproduction without any genetic alterations ( as occurs in sexual reproduction ). The species produced via this type of technique have limited life spans and low chances of survival. 
According to the theory of evolution, the species  which fits themselves best in environment have better chances of survival and every species have some sort of variations as compared to their parents which makes them suitable for the changing environment. Its amazing that the Prokaryotes produces via asexual reproduction in which are exact copy of their parents, still most of them survives in harsh environmental conditions. 

Post Reproduction Adaptations 

It is  seen in species that after the reproduction they might adapt some changes at genetic level both Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes. This mostly seen in Prokaryotes because they need lot of changes to survive.
Single Cell species which reproduce through asexual reproduction have greater abilities to adapt the environmental changes at their genetic level so that their next progenies will already have and not facing problems. But this adaptation is very quick and limited only few species are able to adapt rest of them are dead. This maintains their population because sigle cell species are disease causing agents for Eukaryotes,  if their population increase drastically others may face problems.

Why they produce via Asexual mode? 

The Prokaryotes are harmful for Eukaryotes as they are disease causing agents. However they contribute a lot in the ecosystem.( discussed in next section). Here are the major reasons:

  • Their population is controlled because they  replicate themselves as very high frequency if all of them able to survive than whole ecosystem will unbalanced soon. 
  • Being a single cell they have best mode of regulation of their next generation, however some species are able to produce via sexual mode of reproduction during extreme conditions e.g: Aspergillus

Application in Biotechnology 

Their rapid growth and multiplication attracted scientists and researchers to use them as natural bioreactors. Along with their life cycle they produce some metabolic chemicals which are benifitable sometime and sometime harmful. 

  • Production of antibiotics by  bacteria and fungi. Streptomycin,tetracycline and erythromycin are some of the commonly known antibiotics which are made from fungi and bacteria.
  • Production of Chemicals, Enzymes and other Bioactive Molecules
  • Examples of acid producers are
  • Aspergillus niger (a fungus) of citric acid
  • Acetobacter aceti (a bacterium) of acetic acid
  • Clostridium butylicum (a bacterium) of butyric acid
  • Lactobacillus (a bacterium) of lactic acid.
  • Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is used for commercial production of ethanol.
  • Lipases are used in detergent formulations and are helpful in removing oily stains from the laundry.
  • The bottled juices are clarified by the use of pectinases and proteases.
  • Streptokinase produced by the bacterium Streptococcus and modified by genetic engineering is used as a ‘clot buster’ for removing clots from the blood vessels of patients who have undergone myocardial infraction leading to heart attack.
  • Another bioactive molecule, cyclosporin A, that is used as an immunosuppressive agent in organ-transplant patients, is produced by the fungus Tnchoderma polysporum.
  • Statins produced by the yeast Monascus purpureus have been commercialized as blood-cholesterol lowering agents. It acts by competitively inhibiting the enzyme responsible for synthesis of cholesterol.
  • Conversion of Milk into Curd by Lactobacillus. 
  • Fermentation of milk in industries. 
  • Sewage treatment.
  • Production of Biogas. 
  • Microbes as biocontrol agents : Biocontrol refers to the use of biological methods for controlling plant diseases and pests. Biological agents are a better alternative to weedicides and pesticides.
  • Microbes as Biofertilisers. 
NCERT  text books from 6 to 12.


Gene Therapy | Medical Evolution

Now a days it is being focused on the functionality and the speciality of genes to use them as precursor of antipeptides, so in case of any disorder no need to give antipeptides externally. Gene therapy is an emerging technique in which genes are preferred to treat or prevent the disorders inspite of using drugs and surgery’s. Researchers are testing possible approaches to gene therapy including,Replacing a mutated or defective gene that causes disease with a healthy copy of the gene, Inactivating, or “knocking out,” a mutated gene that is functioning improperly,Introducing a new gene which produces the anti effectives into the body to help fight a disease. Although gene therapy is a promising treatment option for a number of diseases like  inherited disorders, some types of cancer, and on certain viral infections, But this technique remains risky and is still under study to make sure that it will be safer and effective. Gene therapy is currently being tested only for diseases that have no other cures.


Genes are the basic inheritance and regulatory molecules which commands the cell via expressing themselves in terms of proteins. Therapy with using genes is  a  novel  treatment method  in which    genes  or  short  oligonucleotide sequences  used as  therapeutic  molecules, instead of  using conventional  drug compounds and surgery’s . This technique  is  widely  used to treat  those  defective  genes  which are responsible in the development of diseases [1,2]. The treatment is better and preferred over conventional drugs methods [2]. Our genetic program is made up of thousand of genes, stretches of DNA, that generally code for different proteins that do particular jobs in the cells in our body. The idea of using drugs and antipeptides is replaced by gene therapy, as the genes express them selves in terms of peptides [3]. 


The first idea of gene therapy was introduced by Theodore Friedmann and Richard Roblin during 1960’s. They are the first who gave the concept of treatment via introducing a particular gene which lasts to the next generations [4]. Now we have several gene editing and inserting tools e.g: CRISPR-CAS9,  which may be useful in cancer and viral treatments.


The research and the exploration of inherent molecules such as RNA and DNA gave rise to the concept of treating disorders and syndromes directly by an organism itself for life time.  As the inherent molecules have the capability to transfer generation over generation so transferring the gene of interest is permanent cure for the syndromes and disorders.

  • The genes have the ability to inherit in next generation thus leading to permanent cure for the disorders and syndromes.
  • Gene are the regulatory molecules present in cell so the defective ones can be removed which results in the permanent cure with no further medication.


  1. Bainbridge, J. W. B.;  Smith, A.  J.;  Barker, S. S.;  Robbie, S.;  Henderson, R.;  Balaggan, K.;  Viswanathan, A.;  Holder, G. E. et  al. (2008). "Effect  of  Gene  Therapy  on Visual Function in  Leber's  Congenital  Amaurosis". New  England Journal  of  Medicine  358 (21): 2231–2239.   
  2. Genetic Science Learning Center. (2012, December 1) What is Gene Therapy?. Retrieved January 30, 2018, from
  3. Shalini Jaiswal*, 2Gautam Singh, Jawwad Husain2  1Assistant Professor, Chemistry Department, AMITY University, Noida Campus, India.  2Biotechnology Department, AMITY University, Noida Campus, India. *Corresponding author’s E-mail:  “Mechanism and Antimicrobial Application of Histatin 5, Defensin and  Cathelicidin Peptides Derivatives”
  4. Theodore Friedmann and Richard Roblin  "Gene therapy for human genetic disease?" 1972 Mar 3;175(4025):949-55


Venom or Poison |

Venom and poison both are similar words but biologically they  are different. Many people thinks about venom and poison same thing here are the difference between them :


It is a natural poison secreted by reptiles and some other creatures. Venom is poisonous when it is injected in bloodstream only it never harm when eaten or drink through mouth. Venom is less harmful than artificial poisons and its effects and symptoms are slow to increase. Venom contains several enzymes or enzyme blocking parts which when comes in contact with blood stops the functionality of blood.
However some snakes have very dangerous venom like cobra and other related species but they can also be cured there anti-venoms have been developed. However survival rate is quite low because the patient can't be taken hospital within an hour. 


It may be artificial or natural but in most of dangerous poison they are artificially made. They are much more toxic than venoms.  Their effect is too quick and fast. Some poisons are too much dangerous that they kill eventually when come contact with the person's inner part. Poison is harmful in both cases when comes in contact with bloodstream or in mouth.  Poison is designed to work on the metabolic pathways. Metabolic activities occur in every part of human body so wherever it will present start affecting.

Remember a person can be saved when he/she is infected with venom, by poison still hard to save. 


Lymphocytes | Guardians of Immunity

Lymphocytes are the White Blood Cells also called as Leukocytes. Which comprises of Natural Killer cells B and T cells. These are very important for maintaining the immune system because these are the cells which fight against,  identify and kill the infectious micro-organisms and other foreign substances. Bone marrow constantly produces cells that will become lymphocytes. Some will enter in bloodstream, but most will move through  lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is the group of tissues and organs, like the spleen, tonsils, and lymph nodes, that protect our body from infection. About 25 percent of the new lymphocytes remain in the bone marrow and become B cells. The other 75 percent travel to  thymus and become T cells.

The two main types of lymphocytes are known as T and B cells. These two types of lymphoid cells are developed and differentiated in the primary lymphoid organs. For example, T cells are developed in the thymus, where as the B lymphocytes are differentiated in the adult bone marrow and fetal liver. In birds, B cells are differentiated in the bursa of Fabricius. Further more, in the primary lymphoid organs T and B cells precursors acquire the ability for recognizing antigens through the development of specific surface receptors. NK- cells do not express antigen receptors on their cell membranes. They are capable to lyse certain tumor cell lines in vitro without being sensitized. NK cells are large granular lymphocytes (LGLs) Lymphocytes are produced in the primary lymphoid organs (thymus and adult bone marrow) at a high rate 109 per day. Some of these cells migrate to the blood circulation via the secondary lymphoid tissues (spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue). The average human adult has about 1012 lymphoid cell, and approximately 2% of the body weight is a lymphoid tissues. Lymphoid cells represent about 20% of the total leukocytes population in the adult circulation. Many mature lymphoid cells are long-lived, and may persist as a memory cells for several years, or even for the live time of the individual. 

Availability of Lymphocytes in the Body 

  • Lymphocytes in the Blood Stream  
  • Lymphocytes Outside the Bloodstream, in the Lymph vessels   
  • Lymphocytes in the Lymph Nodes

What lymphocytes do in the body ?

There are actually many differences between B-cells and T-cells, even though they are both lymphocytes. B-cells and T-cells are associated with different parts of the immune system. One part of the immune system—the more B-cell dominant part—is focused on making antibodies that can bind to foreign invaders and lead to their destruction. The other part of the immune system—the more T-cell dominant part—is focused on recognizing the invaders and then directly killing them, through a very specific recognition sequence that leads to cell-to-cell battle. These two different turfs or part are described by specific terms. The artillery, or the antibody-producing side, is known as humoral immunity. The infantry, or the cell-to-cell battle side, is known as cell-mediated immunity.
B-cells are the cells that come to mind when thinking about antibodies, or humoral immunity, and T-cells are the cells that come to mind when thinking about cell-to-cell combat, cytotoxicity, or so-called cell-mediated immunity. In reality, there is often cooperation between B-cells and T-cells, just as there is coordination between those who fire the mortars and the infantry.
B-cells mature in the bone marrow and move to the lymph nodes. B-cells become plasma cells or memory cells when foreign antigens activate them; most B-cells become antibody-producing plasma cells; only some remain as memory cells. Memory B-cells help ensure that if the enemy is encountered again in the future, the mortars are prepared. Plasma cells can be found in lymph nodes and elsewhere in the body, where they work to produce large volumes of antibodies. Once antibodies are released into the blood and lymph, these antibody molecules bind to the target antigen to begin the process of neutralizing or destroying the foreign agent.
T-cells mature in the thymus and differentiate into different types. There are several types of T cells, including the following:
Cytotoxic T cells find and directly attack foreigners such as bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells.
Helper T cells recruit other immune cells and organize an immune response.
Regulatory T cells are thought to suppress the immune system so that it doesn't overreact (as it does in autoimmune diseases), however central aspects of the biology of these cells remain shrouded in mystery and continue to be hotly debated.
Natural killer T (NKT) cells are not the same thing as natural killer cells, but they do have similarities. NKT cells are cytotoxic T cells that need to be pre-activated and differentiate to do their work. Natural killer (NK) cells and NKT cells are subsets of lymphocytes that share common ground. Both can rapidly respond to the presence of tumor cells and participate in anti-tumor immune responses.
Memory T cells remember markers on the surface of bacteria, viruses, or cancer cells that they have seen before.

Difference between B and T cell
S.No B Cell T Cell
1. Responsible for humoral immunity  Responsible for cell mediated immunity 
2. Life span is short  Life span is long 
3. Differentiate inside bone marrow  Differentiate inside thymus gland 
4. Surface antibodies present  Absence of surface antibodies 
5. Transformed into plasma cells by antigens  Transformed in small lymphocytes by antigens 
6. Secrete antibodies  Secrete Lymphokines
7. Sub population are memory cells and plasma cells  Sub population are cytotoxic T,  Helper cells and Suppressor cells 
8. B-Cells or B-lymphocytes produce antibodies  Stimulates phagocytes and B cells in to activity


Vitamins | Generic name, Sources and Functions

Generally there are 13 vitamins found in nature. These 13 vitamins are vital for human metabolism and immunity as they are the mutual part of several enzymes. You have heard about Vitamin B complex it is the most abundant and required complex found in nature. Vitamin B complex comprises of five B vitamins except B7,   B9 and B12. For details scroll bellow to find more....... 
Name of Vitamin Generic Name(s) Sources  Functions 
Vitamin A Retinol, Beta-carotene

Retinol from animal sources-: eggs,  liver,  fish

Beta-carotene from plant source-: green vegetables,  carrot,  orange

Vision,  Skin,  Mucous membranes 
Vitamin B1  Thiamine  Pork, Wheat, grain,  Breads,  Cereals, Legumes, Nuts & Seeds Part of an enzyme,  Energy metabolism,  Nerve function
Vitamin B2 Riboflavin Milk and its Products,  Green vegetables,  Cereals,  Whole grain Part of an enzyme, Energy metabolism,  Skin Health 
Vitamin B3 Niacin, Niacinamide, Nicotinamide  Meat,  Poultry,  Fish,  Cereals,  Green vegetables,  Butter,  Mushrooms  Part of an enzyme, Energy metabolism, Skin Health,  Digestive System 
Vitamin B5 Pantothenic acid  Milk,  Vegetables,  Fruits Part of an Enzyme, Energy metabolism 
Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine, Pyridoxamine  Meat,  Poultry,  Vegetables,  Fruits Part of an enzyme,  Protein metabolism,  RBC formation
Vitamin B7 Biotin Milk, Vegetables,  Fruits,  Produced in gut by bacteria Hairs, Part of an enzyme,  Energy metabolism 
Vitamin B9 Folic acid  Green vegetables, Legumes, Seeds, Orange juice, Liver Part of an enzyme,  RBC DNA & New cell formation
Vitamin B12 Cynocobalamine, Methylcobalamine, Adenosylcobalamine, Hydroxocobalamine  Meat,  Poultry,  Fish,  Sea food Part of an enzyme,  New cell formation, Nerve function
Vitamin C Ascorbic acid  Citrus fruits,  Vegetables, Tomatoes, Pepper  Antioxidant, Protein metabolism, Immune health,  Iron absorption 
Vitamin D  Ergocalciferol,  Cholecalciferol Egg, Liver,  Fish,  Milk Calcium absorption,  Bone health
Vitamin E Tocopherol PUFA, Green vegetables,  Egg,  Nuts Antioxidant, Cell wall protection 
Vitamin K Phylloquinone 

Green vegetables ( Spinach,  Broccoli ) produced in gut by bacteria 

Proper blood clotting, Strengthen Teeth & Bones



Nutreints are the basic requirements of the person but how much one should consume it is decided by the organizations which work under the government. These organizations make study over the person taking each and every situation, to find out how much a person take minerals and vitamin on daily basis. This is called RDA( Recommend Daily Allowances) which is decided by the ESPEN,  FSSAI and ICMR.  

It is a European Society of Parentreal and Entreal Nutrition. This organization provide and make the guidlines of consumption of vitamins, minerals  and proteins to the patients. 
The aim of this organization to provide basic information to the patient about their RDA. 

It is a Food Safety and Security Authority of India which gives the guidlines of consumption of vitamins,  minerals and proteins to the healthy person. 

It is a Indian Council Of Medical Research which gives the guidlines fir the consumption of vitamins , minerals and proteins to the nutrient deficent person. 

For the RDA limit given by the FSSAI and ICMR see the post on this blog ''RDA limit as per FSSAI and ICMR''



The human stomach related framework is an intricate arrangement of organs and organs that procedures nourishment. So as to utilize the nourishment we eat, our body needs to separate the sustenance into littler atoms that it can process; it likewise needs to discharge squander. 

The greater part of the stomach related organs (like the stomach and digestive organs) are tube-like and contain the sustenance as it advances through the body. The stomach related framework is basically a long, contorting tube that keeps running from the mouth to the butt, in addition to a couple of different organs (like the liver and pancreas) that create or store stomach related chemicals. 

The beginning of the procedure - the mouth: 
The stomach related process starts in the mouth. Sustenance is mostly separated by the way toward biting and by the substance activity of salivary compounds (these chemicals are created by the salivary organs and separate starches into littler particles). 

While in transit to the stomach: the throat - In the wake of being bitten and gulped, the sustenance enters the throat. The throat is a long tube that keeps running from the mouth to the stomach. It utilizes musical, wave-like muscle developments (called peristalsis) to constrain nourishment from the throat into the stomach. This muscle development enables us to eat or drink notwithstanding when we're topsy turvy. 

In the stomach - The stomach is a substantial, sack-like organ that agitates the sustenance and showers it in an exceptionally solid corrosive (gastric corrosive). Nourishment in the stomach that is mostly processed and blended with stomach acids is called chyme. 

In the small digestive system - In the wake of being in the stomach, sustenance enters the duodenum, the initial segment of the small digestive tract. It at that point enters the jejunum and afterward the ileum (the last piece of the small digestive system). In the small digestive system, bile (delivered in the liver and put away in the rankle bladder), pancreatic chemicals, and other stomach related catalysts created by the internal mass of the small digestive system help in the breakdown of sustenance. 

In the digestive organ - Subsequent to going through the small digestive system, sustenance goes into the internal organ. In the digestive organ, a portion of the water and electrolytes (chemicals like sodium) are expelled from the sustenance. Numerous microorganisms (microscopic organisms like Bacteroides, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella) in the internal organ help in the absorption procedure. The initial segment of the digestive organ is known as the cecum (the supplement is associated with the cecum). Nourishment at that point ventures upward in the climbing colon. The nourishment traversed the guts in the transverse colon, backpedals down the opposite side of the body in the sliding colon, and after that through the sigmoid colon. 

The finish of the procedure - Strong waste is then put away in the rectum until the point that it is discharged by means of the anus. 

SCIENCE : Before We Know

Before the origin of life on earth 🌍 the word science was originated because our 🏫 science starts from there. After the origin of species and life forms on earth science was developed and still evolving. 
Then the era comes when higher species were evolved which have some capabilities to understand that natural phenomenon and processes occuring in the environment. Spontaneously the species move to higher level of evolution, and today we are able to understand these phenomenon , explain them with theories, predict them and more. 
But the actual meaning of science is same in past and in future, '' Science is to analyze everything in your environment with a meaningful explanation ''.
This is we are doing since ancient  times,  our ancestors studied and analyzed them and stored in written form of explanation which today we take as examples. For example : VEDAS in Hindu religion which have lot of information about science(Medical Science)  based on the actual experimentation, Egyptian and Roman architectures  and many more. 
The previous civilizations which are lost they are very developed in science they created various large monument which modern tech can't do perfectly.
The modern science is totally based on the previous science explorations although we have created lot of technology which reduces our time and labour consumption but these tech doesn't have perfection like in ancient science. 


Why Humans Can't be a super humans or have super powers?

Humans and any other species have defined composition of genes designed  by the nature in such a way that they are fully compatible and balance their natural ecosystem. 
Being super human and having super powers means some sort of genetic mutation which violates the nature's rule and cause imbalance in nature via polluting the wild genotypes. If some how it could become possible then nature have predefined rule to prevent further imbalancing. 
In nature it is defined that if any species violates its wild genotypic composition it becomes sterile so that it can't further be produced and eliminated naturally. For example : i have to mention from plant species  generally plant have diploid in nature but through naturally and artificially there is another type called triploids which have special and very large agronomic traits but they are sterile and cant be crossed so they are produced and cloned in laboratory to obtain their products.
Another example in humans if any genetic mutation occurs which have direct or indirect impact on phenotypic expression there is about 80% chances to have them sterile.  100% not because of if the mutation is low level or changes occur at low frequency then it can not be sterile and may be beneficial. 
Comments below your queries .......


CATHELICIDINS an antimicrobial peptide

Cathelicidins, a group of peptides having 100 amino acid domains that is habitually proteolytically divided from the exceedingly variable C-terminal antimicrobial domain. In phagocytes, the cathelicidins are usually put away as latent antecedents in secretory granules. Much of the time, the preparing protein is neutrophil elastase contained in a different arrangement of capacity granules. Amid phagocytosis, this twofold framework consolidates to create dynamic antimicrobial peptides. A wealth of evidence exists to suggest cathelicidin's crucial role as an antimicrobial in the protection of epithelial surfaces, particularly the skin. The clinical significance of cathelicidins antimicrobial activity can be seen in patients with Kostmann's syndrome, a rare genetic condition resulting in severe neutropenia. Cathelicidins are precursors of many novel peptides. Cathelicidin-derived antimicrobial peptides range in length from 12 to about 100 residues, and include α-helical peptides, e.g. human LL-37/hCAP18 and pig PMAP-37 ; linear peptides with one or two predominant amino acids, e.g. the bovine Pro- and Arg-rich Bac5 and Bac7  and the Trp-rich indolicidin ; and peptides with one or two disulfide bonds, e.g. bovine cyclic dodecapeptide  and pig protegrins The general lead of the component activating Cathelicidin activity, similar to that of other antimicrobial peptides, includes the breaking down (harming and puncturing) of cell layers of creatures toward which the peptide is dynamic. Cathelicidins don't follow up on solid host cell layer. Collaboration of cationic peptides and contrarily charged lipid films of microorganisms empower their precise, parallel bond and mooring, and killing the layer charge. Changing of the auxiliary and tertiary structure of the peptide changes its opposite introduction, in this way inserting in the lipid bilayer and making transmembrane pores. In its activity against Gram– negative microscopic organisms, the peptide can move over the external film, and in the wake of passing the layer of peptidoglycan, crosses the inward film into the cytoplasm of the bacterial cell. Cathelicidin has also proven to be effective against viral infections including herpes simplex virus, vaccinia virus, and fungal infections.


DEFENSINS An Antimicrobial Peptide

Defensins are small cysteinerich cationic proteins found in both vertebrates and invertebrates. They have also been reported in plants.  Also they are assorted individuals from a substantial group of cationic host Defense peptides (HDP), generally dispersed all through the plant and creature kingdoms. Defensins and Defensin-like peptides are practically different, disturbing microbial layers and going about as ligands for cellular recognition and signaling. They function as, host defense peptides. They are active against bacteria, fungi and many enveloped and non-enveloped viruses. They consist of 18-45 amino acids including six (in vertebrates) to eight conserved cysteine residues. These (Defensin) are especially plentiful and generally dispersed antimicrobial peptides described by a cationic β-sheet rich amphipathic structure balanced out by a preserved three-disulfide motif. They extend in measure from 29 to 47 amino acids, and are bottomless in numerous vertebrate granulocytes, Paneth cells (specific granule-rich intestinal host guard cells), and on epithelial surfaces. Like the more straightforward magainins and protegrins, defensins likewise shape pores in target films. There is confirming that the permeabilization of target cells is nonlethal unless taken after by Defensin passage into the cell and extra intracellular harm. AMP productions might be both constitutive and inducible. Defensin biosynthesis is specially activated by atomic structures related with pathogens of irresistible operators and furthermore by cytokines. Animals and human alpha and beta defensins separated in 1980th are additionally subdivided into various subtypes. There are numerous subtypes of alpha and beta defensins (e.g., αdef1; αdef3; αdef4; αdef6; βdef1; βdef2; βdef4, and so forth.); in multicellular living beings they assume comparable anti-infection parts against microorganisms, organisms, and even some infections The tadefensins (Θ) have been as of late found in a few individuals from the set of all animals. These antibacterial peptides go about as commit porins on the bacterial cell divider. Not at all like the insects and mammalian defensins, are which for the most part dynamic against bacteria. Plant defensins, with a couple of exemptions, don't have antibacterial movement. Most plant defensins are engaged with resistance against an expansive scope of organisms.  They are not just dynamic against phytopathogenic growths, (for example, Fusarium culmorum and Botrytis cinerea), yet additionally against cook's yeast and human pathogenic organisms, (for example, Candida albicans. Plant defensins have likewise been appeared to hinder the development of roots and root hairs in Arabidopsis thaliana and change development of different tomato organs which can expect numerous capacities identified with safeguard and advancement. 


MALACIDINS a new class of antibiotics

Researchers from The Rockefeller University have discovered a new class of antibiotics capable of killing off several antibiotic-resistant pathogens. This new family comes from molecules present in a large variety of soils and researchers hope it could be a useful weapon in our medical arsenal.
As reported in Nature Microbiology, the antibiotic compounds are a special class of peptides – special chains of amino acids – which require calcium for antibacterial activity. Calcium-dependent antibiotics are capable of targeting bacteria in a variety of ways and this characteristic makes them particularly effective. They can target the formation of the bacterial cell membrane or even destroy the cell wall.
The team looked for new members of this antibiotic family and tested them against known pathogens. The new antibiotics, called malacidins, were successful in sterilizing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, also known as the superbug MRSA, and the bacteria attacked with the malacidins did not develop resistance.

The new family of antibiotics comes from molecules present in large variety of soils. Scientists had analysed more than 1000 unique soil samples across US to better understand how new class of antibiotics is produced and how it can be exploited for fighting bacteria. They had used DNA information that encodes production of antibiotic in daptomycin to study it. This discovery could be a useful weapon in field of medicines.


Malacidins are distinctive class of antibiotics that are commonly encoded in soil microbiomes. They have never been reported in culture-based NP (Natural Products) discovery efforts.
Malacidins are active against multidrug-resistant pathogens, sterilise methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus  (MRSA) skin infections in animal wound model and did not select for resistance in laboratory conditions.
The malacidins was tested on rats with MRSA skin infections. The condition was cured, and even after 20 days of continued contact with malacidins, the rodents did not experience any side effects.


Malacidins only target gram-positive bacteria with a very thick cell wall. It is ineffective against gram-negative bacteria which cause cholera, pneumonia, sexually transmitted diseases, and plague. Thus, it does not make it universal cure against all bacteria.