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BIO-TOILETS an Introduction

Bio-toilets are based on bio-digester technology which was initially developed by Defence research &Development organization (DRDO) for defence personnel. The enterprise is pioneering this, in integrated approaches and taking this effective  and  innovative Sanitation  solution  to  the  civil population with varying applications.
It is developed by DRDO and called DRDO bacteria that converts human excretory waste into water and gas .Water is subjected to chlorination and then it is discharged outside. It has a very effective impact on environment and environmental-friendly track that creates healthy working condition for railway tracks.There are many issues related to the bio-toilets which pertain to behavior of the passengers.Passengers dispose newspapers,plastic bottles,bags that clog toilets.
India is a place that is known for decent variety where one can witness space rockets conveying correspondence satellites into space and in the meantime manual cleaning of human excreta by foragers. As indicated by the information shared by NSSO (National Sample Survey Office) in December 2013, 59.4 level of provincial India poop in the open. According to the twelfth five year design, 50 percent of the towns must accomplish ODF (open crap free) status by 2017 and 100 rate by 2022. In any case, this target appears to be very hard to accomplish in coming 8 years, in light of the fact that the greater part of the towns of India are now confronting genuine medical issues because of heaps of excreta. Tal ruler particularly about the state of towns in Jharkhand, individuals utilize polythene sheets hung on four bamboo adheres as cover to poo. From a study led by MDWS (Ministry Of Drinking Water and Sanitation), just 40 percent homes in rustic India have toilets while whatever is left of the populace is compelled to pick open poop. This unhygienic practice frequently prompts spreading of irresistible infections, and builds ailment and mortality among the most powerless gathering i.e., youngsters.
All things considered, 113 million provincial family units are living without toilets. To take care of this demand, India needs to build 15.3 million toilets for each year. Be that as it may, the present rate at which the toilets are getting built is just 4 million every year. It implies that aggregate sani tation will get over by 2044 i.e., 20 years more than due date. Along these lines, it is obviously noticeable that there is an immense prerequisite of toilets in the nation which can't be satisfied by recently ebb and flow sorts of toilets which covers pour-flush, water storage room (36.4 %), and pit restroom (9.4%) toilets and others (1.1 %) according to 2011 statistics of India.
Here comes the part of bio-toilets, which are anything but difficult to introduce and financially savvy, and offer natural inviting answer for practical human excreta administration. Bio-toilets not just play out the general capacity of a can, yet in addition change over human excreta into compost which can be utilized as natural manure. This manure is discovered rich in Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P) And Potassiu m (K), and goes about as a dirt conditioner. A bio-can chiefly comprises of a latrine bowl, fertilizing the soil reactor, ventilation, and blending instrument (Figure-I). In the bio-can, defecation pee is blended with sawdust in a reactor chamber and this blend is disintegrated by oxygen consuming microscopic organisms bringing about arrangement of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O). The water is vanished by the compound warmth which discharges in the process disintegration of natural materials. In the interim, mineralized results of natural waste, for example, Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P) And Potassium (K) stayed in the saw clean. After the bio-can is utilized for a half year, the lingering sawdust is gathered and can be utilized for natural cultivating and biogas era.
The primary rule of bio-toilets is that is a bacteriological framework for discarding human waste. In the treatment tank the human waste and water blend enters and artical " microscopic organisms booster"(micro culture) grow more number of microbes which is persistently separated the strong human waste into the fluid which deplete with water, after appropriate synthetic treatment(CI) to slaughter the microorganisms in the water. The Bacteria free water is depleted to the track bed in the middle of Rails, the different gases(primary CO)developed while concoction response in a depleted created to the tank vents.
Bio-toilet system depend upon the human excretory waste disposal mechanism which reduces solid human waste to biogas like methane and pure water with the help of anaerobic bacteria inoculum . The human waste is treated in a digester tank using specific high graded bacteria.This technology was initially developed by Defence research &Development organization (DRDO) for defence personnel. Water is undergo to chlorination and then discharged into environment . This effect will be clear and environmental -friendly spaces and specially railway tracks in India.
In that project are two doors in tank, the one input door and second exit door. The input door is on top of the tank and exit door is assembling inside the tank. The doors open and close by using pneumatic cylinder. Pneumatic cylinder is control by using RPM controller, Proximity sensor, and Compressed air tank.  So, whole system is controlled with train speed. If the train speeds exceed 30 km/h then exit door will open and total waste depositor drop in tracks and input door is close. Input door is open when train is under 30 km/h speed.
Corresponding author.                         SHREYA TYAGI, AMITY UNIVERSITY  


Typhoid Vaccine

The World Health Organisation (WHO) has given its pre-qualification to Typbar Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine (TVC) developed by Hyderabad based Bharat Biotech for global use.

Typbar TCV is world’s first typhoid vaccine clinically proven to be administered to children from six months of age to adults, and confers long-term protection against typhoid fever. It has been evaluated in Human Challenge Studies at Oxford University.
The WHO pre-qualification enables procurement and supplies of this life-saving vaccine to UNICEF, Pan-American Health Organisation (PAHO) and GAVI (vaccine alliance) supported countries. This also paves the way for WHO member countries to introduce the Typbar TCV into their immunization programs.
TCVs are innovative products having longer-lasting immunity than older vaccines and require fewer doses. They can be given to young children through routine childhood immunization programs. TCVs have been recommended by WHO’s Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (WHO-SAGE).
Typhoid fever is caused by bacterium Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi). It infects humans due to contaminated food and beverages from sewage and other infected humans. Its symptoms include fever, fatigue, headache, abdominal pain, and diarrhoea or constipation.
Currently, a third of global population is at risk of typhoid fever, which results in loss of work and wages, lowered pregnancy outcomes and impaired the physical and cognitive development of children. According to International Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) estimates in 2016, there were approximately 12 million cases of typhoid fever resulting in around 130,000 deaths. Urbanisation and climate change have potential to further increase global burden of typhoid.


Vaccination | An introduction

Vaccination of human Vaccination is playing most important role in medical biology. Millions of lives are saved every year worldwide because of vaccination and these people are also saved from illness and lifelong disability. Prevention of diseases is the most desirable, most convenient and highly effective approach to health; this is achieved by vaccination or immunization using biological preparations called vaccines. In past few years many vaccines were developed for many terrifying diseases such as diptheria, mumps, measles, tetanus etc. 

There are many advantages of vaccines but despite of all this, there some adverse effects of vaccines which occur due to addition of some chemicals in vaccines during their manufacturing. Presently vaccines like contaminated vaccines, live recombinant vaccines, recombinant polypeptide vaccines and DNA vaccines. In this scientists made many clinical trials to produce effective vaccine for HIV virus and also made some new vaccines for disease 
Vaccination is one of the major contributions of immunology to medical science. Most of the world’s children are protected from a number of infectious diseases by routine immunization in each year. The observation that individuals who recovered from some infectious diseases were resistant to subsequent re-infection long proceeded the development of the science of immunology & our understanding of immune response. Indeed, the Eward Jenner  & Louis Pasteur  made the first attempt of vaccination for human diseases . Their efforts to reproduce immunity by artificial exposure to infectious agents were so successful that many diseases, were rapidly controlled. Vaccine were developed rapidly against infectious diseases .The disease such as diphtheria , measles ,mumps, poliomyelitis, whooping cough (pertusis), rubella & tetanus  has declined sufficiently due to WHO policy of vaccination of children . It is a cost-effective process for disease prevention. The vaccines golden age first time started when Koch, Pasteur, Roman & Merieuy founded the germ theory & developed vaccines which are based on inactivated toxins(toxoids) and inactivated (killed) pathogens or live attenuated. Vaccination has been responsible for the recent increase in world’s mortility rate.

An ideal vaccine or vaccination protocol should have the following features.
1. It should not be tumorogenic or toxic or pathogenic ,i.e., it should be safe.
2. It should have very low levels of side-effects.
3. It should not cause problems in individuals with an impaired immune system.
4. It should not spread either within the vaccinated individual or to other individuals (live vaccines).
5. It should not contaminate the environment.
6. It should be effective in producing long lasting humoral and cellular immunities.
7. The technique of vaccination should be simple.
8. The vaccine should be cheap so that it is affordable.

So far, such an ideal vaccine has not been developed.
The first developed vaccine in the world is the Bacille Calmette-Gnerin(BCG) vaccine, that has been given to more than 4 billion people so far. In the infants the BCG vaccines is more effective to fight against severe tuberculosis (TB) disease, but BCG as a booster is not that much effective when the immune system gets weak.

When the peoples immune system become weak, immunization is used to eliminate or delay, to fight diseases that can reduce their lifespan. An infectious diseases which are tend to come back in life, such as diseases which are associated with the risk of hospitalization and cancer, influenza, RSV and pneumococcus.

Working Human Skeletal Muscle developed in Laboratory

Scientists from  Duke University in North Carolina, US for first time have developed working human skeletal muscle from stem cells in the laboratory
Stem cells
Stem cells are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells and can divide to produce more stem cells. They are found in multicellular organisms. In mammals, there are two broad types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Embryonic stem cells can be isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts and adult stem cells are found in various tissues which can act as a repair system for the body, replenishing adult tissues.
Key Facts
Scientists had developed human skeletal muscle using adult skin or blood cells that were reprogrammed into a juvenile, versatile state. These cells were induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) which can become any other type of human cell like naturally-occurring stem cells found in embryos.
In this case, the iPSCs were coaxed into becoming skeletal muscle cells. The breakthrough was made possible by unique cell culture conditions in lab and special 3-D scaffold which allowed cells to grow much faster and longer.
The tissue contracted and reacted to external stimuli such as electrical pulses or chemical signals. It was also implanted into adult mice, where it survived and functioned for at least three weeks.
The development is breakthrough that holds promise for sufferers of degenerative muscular diseases. This technique will allow scientists to grow endless amount of functioning muscle in lab to test to test drugs and gene treatments for degenerative diseases.


Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)

SCNT is a laboratory technique for creating an ovum with donor nucleus. In it, nucleus containing the organism’s DNA of somatic cell (a body cell other than sperm or egg cell) is removed and rest of cell discarded. The nucleus of somatic cell is then inserted into enucleated egg cell which reprograms somatic cell nucleus by the host cell. The egg, now containing nucleus of somatic cell, is stimulated with a shock and will begin to divide forming blastocyst (an early stage embryo with about 100 cells) with almost identical DNA to original organism. It can be used in embryonic stem cell research, regenerative medicine i.e. “therapeutic cloning.” It can also be used as first step in process of reproductive cloning. Reproductive cloning occurs by implanting SCNT derived blastocyst into the uterus of a surrogate mother where the embryo develops into fetus. Mouse, Monkey and Human embryonic stem cells can be created using SCNT. This technique was used to create first cloned mammal, Dolly the sheep. 


  1. It can be used to produce stem cells. 
  2. It has the potential to produce extinct species e.g cells collected from wooly mammoth could be used as nuclear donors for enucleated elephant eggs. This has been proved by an experiment on mice. Mice were cloned using somatic cell nuclei derived from mouse that had been frozen for more than 15 years. 
  3. SCNT can be used to generate exact copies of cells to be used for tissue and organs for a patient in need. If this is accomplished, it could potentially eliminate the desperate need for donor organs around the world. 
  4. If SCNT were to be mastered by humans, it could assist in treating diseases associated with mitochondrial dna. This is because the nucleus of a somatic cell burdened with one of these diseases and that undergoes somatic cell nuclear transfer prevents mitochondrial dna mutations. 


  1. It is inefficient process with majority of studies reporting between 0.5-5% develop correctly. Loss of fetuses and young occur throughout gestation,  at birth and following birth with a range of developmental abnormalities being reported. Reasons for these abnormalities occuring is unknown but may reflect incomplete or inappropriate reprogramming.
  2. There is a high fetal death rate when SCNT is used on an embryo in any organism. 
  3. The clones are not exact copy (100% copy)  of desired or donor species as it contains the cytoplasmic traits of eggs. 



Pharmaceuticals Industries are using toxic chemicals and extra difficult process which produces comparatively a large amount harmful substance. These harmful substances cause bad impact on surroundings and nature. The approach of Green chemistry provides environmentally friendly way to replace harmful solvents and technologies, so prevent pollution. Green Chemistry concept The green chemistry has emerged as research program in the US which arises from collaborative efforts of university unit, self-governing research crowed, business, technical community and legislative agencies, to decreasing pollution. The new approach introduces in green chemistry synthesis, dealing out and relevance of chemical material in such a way as to minimize the risk to environment and health of human. This advanced access is as well called:
1. Eco-friendly chemistry

2. Clean chemistry
3. Atom wealth
4. Benign design chemistry
Global ecofriendly ideas to conserve and protect nature

Green chemistry involves 12 set of values projected by Anastas and Warner. The green chemistry gives directions to expert chemists to execute new substance, modern production and modern scientific processes.The main idea to protect the environment green chemistry is generated from first principle. Whereas 11 principles are paying attention to make environment eco-friendly.


Green science is an exceedingly compelling way to deal with contamination aversion as it applies creative logical answers for certifiable natural circumstances. The accompanying 12 standards of Green Chemistry give an approach to scientific experts to execute green chemistry.

(a)Waste Control - It is perfect to forestall squander than to take care of waste after it has been produced.

(b) Atom effectiveness- Engineered planning must intended to enhance the all supplies utilized as element of procedure into product.
 (c) Application of non- destructive of reagents-This incorporates the utilization of reagents and manufactured strategies that decreases the hazard and delivers eco-accommodating items that has no awful effect on human and atmosphere.
(d) Safer Chemicals Scheming-Chemicals and reagents should accomplish their coveted ability while limiting their harmfulness.
(e) Safer Solvents and Auxiliaries -Broadly utilized solvents in unions are lethal and unstable – liquor, benzene (known cancercausing), CCl4, CHCl3, perchloroethylene, CH2Cl2. These have now been supplanted by more secure green solvents.
(f) Design for Energy Efficiency-Vitality requirements of synthetic procedures must perceive for their ecological and monetary effects and should to be limited.
(g) Use of Renewable Feed stocks-It is wanted to use crude materials and feedstock that are sustainable, however in fact and monetarily practicable. Referring to the case of sustainable feedstock which incorporate agrarian items and exhausting feedstock incorporate crude supplies that are extracted from non-renewable energy sources (oil, gaseous petrol or coal).
(h) Shorter combinations -Superfluous derivatization should be limited or managed a strategic space if possible and such strides require additional reagents and can produce squander.
(i) Use of Catalytic instead of Stoichiometric reagents -Impetuses are utilized as a part of little sums and can complete a solitary response commonly as are desirable over stoichiometric reagents, which are utilized as a part of overabundance and work. This will improve the selectivity, lessen the temperature of a change, diminish waste produced by reagent and conceivably keep away from undesirable side responses prompting a spotless innovation
(j) Design for dreadful conditions -Compound items ought to be planned so that toward the finish of their capacity they separate into harmless corruption items and don't hold on in nature.
(k)Techniques to control pollution -Different techniques require developing for actual-time, in-process monitoring and control formation of hazardous substances.
(l) Use of Safer Chemicals and Process -Substances and the form of a substance used in a chemical process should be chosen so as to minimize the potential of chemical accidents, including releases, explosions, and fires.


Eco-Friendly Dry clean-up of Clothes -Perchloroethylene (PERC) used for dry cleaning pollutes water resource and cancer-causing agent. To solve this problem Joseph De Simons, Timothy Romark, and James synthesized Micell which is made up of liquid CO2 and a surfactant for cleaning garments. Cleaning machines have now been produced utilizing this procedure. Micell Technology has likewise developed a metal cleaning framework that utilizations CO2 and a surfactant accordingly dispensing with the need of halogenated solvents.
2.2 Solution to Turn Turbid Water Clear -Tamarind seed kernel powder, discarded as agriculture waste, is a good agent to create municipal and industrial waste water clear. the current follow is to use Al-salt to treat such water. it's been found that alum will increasepoisonous ions in treated water and will cause diseases like Alzheimer’s. On the opposite hand kernel powder is not- poisonous and is perishable and price effective. For the study, four flocculants specifically tamarind seed kernel powder, mixture of the powder and starch, starch ad alum were used. Flocculants with slurries were ready by combining measured quantity of clay and water.The result showed aggregation of the powder and suspended particles were a lot of porous and allowed water to exudate and become compact a lot of simply and shaped larger volume of clear water. Starch flocks on the opposite hand were found to be light-weight weight and fewer porous and thus didn’t enable water to taste it simply. The study establishes the powder’s potential as associate degree economic flocculants with performance shut more matured flocculants like K2SO4Al2(SO4)3.24H2O (potash alum).

2.3 Solar Array -One of the best known examples of green technology would be the solar cell. A solar cell directly converts the energy in light into electrical energy through the process of photovoltaics. Generating electricity from solar energy means less consumption of fossil fuels, reducing pollution and greenhouse gas emissions.

2.4 Reusable Water Bottle -Another simple invention that can be considered green is the reusable water bottle. Drinking lots of water is healthy. Reducing plastic waste is great for the environment. Hence, trendy reusable water bottles that you can refill yourself are health-promoting, eco-friendly, and green.
2.5 Solar Water Heater -Installing a solar water heater can be a great way to cut down on energy costs at a much lower initial expense. The costs associated with the installation of a solar water heater are actually recouped much faster than the costs associated with photovoltaic technology for power generation. This is due to the increased efficiency of solar water heating systems, as well as their reduced expense when compared to the large solar array required for powering a home.
2.6 Wind Generator -The costs of a home wind generator vary greatly. Some have built their own wind generators with off-the-shelf parts from their local hardware stores. Others have purchased kits or paid for professional installation to supplement the power purchased from their local electrical grid. The power production capability of a home wind generator varies about as much as the initial expense. Many kit based generators will produce only enough power to offset 10-15% of your Home energy costs.

 2.7 Rainwater Harvesting System -Rain collector systems are extremely simple mechanical systems that connect to a gutter system or other rooftop water collection network and store rain water in a barrel or cistern for later non-potable use (like watering plants, flushing toilets, and irrigation). These systems are extremely inexpensive.
 2.8 Insulation of House -Based on EPA estimates, 10% of household energy usage a year is due to energy loss from poor insulation. We will get an excellent return on investment from sealing our home to prevent energy escape.
 2.9 Building with Green Technology -Green buildings use a variety of environmentally friendly techniques to reduce their impact on the environment. Reclaimed materials, passive solar design, natural ventilation and green roofing technology can allow builders to produce a structure with a considerably smaller carbon footprint than normal construction. These techniques not only benefit the environment, but they can produce economically attractive buildings that are healthier for the occupants as well. The chief benefit of building green is reducing a building’s impact on the environment. Using green building techniques can also reduce the costs associated with construction and operation of a building. Green ventilation techniques involve open spaces and natural airflow, reducing the need for traditional air conditioning and preventing many of these problems.


3.1 Oxidation chemical agent and contact action -Several of the oxidization reagents and catalysts are comprised of nephrotoxic substances like significant metals. Since these substances were typically employed in very massive volumes needed to convert numerous pounds of petrochemicals, there was a major inheritance of those metals being discharged to the setting and having substantial negative impact on human health and setting. It may be modified by the utilization of benign substances.

 3.2 Biometric multifunctional reagents -Whereas artificial contact action and reagents for the foremost half have targeted on concluding one distinct transformation. The manipulations could embrace activation, conformational changes, and one or many actual transformations and derivitizations.
3.3 Combinatorial inexperienced chemistry -The chemistry of having the ability to create massive numbers of chemical compounds chop-chop on a little scale exploitation reaction matrices.The instance is lead that incorporates a massive no of derivatives. This chemistry has enabled massive no of gear to be created and their properties assessed while not the magnitude of the consequences of waste disposal.
3.4 Energy focus -The environmental impact of energy usage square measure profound however haven't been as visible and as direct as a number of the hazards that haven't been expose by materials employed in manufacture, use and disposal of chemicals. The advantage of contact action is dramatic in chemical science. there's a requirement to style substances and materials that square measure effective, economical and cheap at the capture, storage and transportation.
3.5 Proliferation of solvent less reactions -One in every of the 'solvent alternatives' that's being: it's one in every of the solvent alternatives that's being developed in inexperienced chemistry is that of solvent less reaction system. The carrying of producing method in solvent-less condition utilizes some non-traditional conditions. This helps in development of product isolation, separation and purification that may be solventless yet so as to maximise.
3.6 Supramolecular chemistry -Analysis is presently current within the space of supramolecular chemistry to generate reactions which may proceed in the solid phase without use of solvents. The cyclic addition of trans-1,2- bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene is directed by phenol within the solid state. This solid-state reaction take within the presence of ultraviolet {light|ultraviolet illumination|UV|actinic radiation|actinic ray} light in 100 percent yield.

Recent Advancements in Biopesticides

The science is as yet thought to be youthful and developing. A portion of the Biopesticides is being worked on, and may end up being fantastic contrasting options to the compound pesticides. A large number of them depend on the locally accessible plants like Neem, Garlic, and Triphala and so forth which can be effectively prepared and made accessible to the ranchers to enhance the Biopesticides utilization.
Bimolecules are being the most recent activity which had been assumed a critical part in headway and proficiency of Biopesticides. (Engineers, 2008). The GMO's are being the most recent and new headway in the field of Biopesticides. r-DNA innovation is another and perfect progression accomplished in the field of pesticides (e.g.CRISPR-cas framework with single protein effectors).
Nanotechnology: Nano level materials encourage the nuclear level specificity and activity of pesticides just in the focused on condition including particular pH, temperature and nearness of particular mixes. Nanopesticide can decreases the issues which are assessed in compound pesticides (vulnerability on the long haul causing malignancy, liver harm, neural issue and immunotoxicity) and show more bioavailability than conventional Biopesticides. Nanoparticle Bacillus thuringiensis have demonstrated expanded efficiency, great scattering and wet capacity, biodegradable in soil and condition, not so much lethal but rather more photograph generative, with surely knew harmful energy and dangerous elements, and are observed to be steady. If there should arise an occurrence of growth, Nano-chitosan definition had been set up by various techniques. Radical unite polymerization of acrylic corrosive onto chitosan demonstrated antifungal and insecticidal movement against some chose soybean seed borne organisms. Trichoderma based compounds (chitin and glucans) are known to demonstrate bug safe movement. Then again plant based Nano definitions, for example, eucalyptus based Nano emulsions was found to display antimicrobial movement.
Recombinant DNA Biotechnology: Recombinant DNA innovation have been utilized to enhance bacterial bug spray viability and connected to enhance larvicides by controlling and recombining quality for vector control. Mosquitocidal Cyt and Cry proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis alongside the paired poison of Bacillus sphaericus were joined to display enhanced adequacy against culex species. These recombinant builds were utilized as bug sprays as well as indicated compelling control of the mosquito vectors for Dengue fever, filariasis and malaria.



ROTAVAC is a new rotavirus vaccine that consists of a strain of the virus that was isolated, manufactured and tested in India. The ROTAVAC trial represents a significant victory for India's scientific community. Based on the study's successful findings, infants in India will gain access to a licensed vaccine and its significant protection against severe rotavirus-induced gastroenteritis.

Rotavac conceived and developed by the Hyderabad-based Bharat Biotech Limited. It protects against childhood diarrhoea caused by the rotavirus. It was developed under the joint collaboration between India and United States in area of medical research.
It was developed under public-private partnership (PPP) model that involved Ministry of Science and Technology, institutions of the US Government and NGOs in India supported by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
The vaccine was built on strain of the virus isolated at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi over 30 years ago. It has been included in India’s national immunisation programme. The vaccine was tested in field for over a year, have not shown any negative effect.
This recognition signifies credible industrial, scientific and regulatory process in place to develop vaccines in India. It paves the way for health and humanitarian organizations such as UNICEF, GAVI and Pan-American Health Organization to procure Rotavac for public health vaccination programmes across the world.
It is a most common causative agent of moderate-to-severe diarrhoea (MSD) among infants below 11 months age group in India. It spreads from person to person due to bacterial and parasiting agents that are primarily transmitted through contaminated food or water. It is responsible for estimated 36% of hospitalisations for childhood diarrhoea around world and for estimated 200,000 deaths in low- and middle-income countries. In India, diarrhoea caused by rotavirus, kills nearly 80 thousand children under age of 5 years and up to 10 lakh hospitalizations each year.



  1. Archaeans are one micron in length ranging to about one thousandth of a millimeter. Thanks to the discovery of electron microscopy as even a high powered light microscope could magnify even large archaeans only to a speck.  They were also associated with multitudes of shapes along with variations in the presence of flagella for their movement.
  2. These organisms derive their energy from multiple sources like sunlight, inorganic and organic compounds. Even while utilizing sunlight, oxygen generating photosynthesis fails to occur in them.
  3. The archaeans were populated and multiplied with the same genetic material by the process of binary fission, where one parent cell divides itself into two daughter cells with the integration of the genetic material within both the cells individually.
  4. The unique chain of chemical tricks starring within this kingdom enables them to thrive under extreme conditions. Of which some were found to withstand high saline, acidic or alkaline aquatic environments. Whereas the others lived even at temperatures above the boiling point at 100° Celsius or 212 F. Some were even found to be resistant to pressures above 200 atmospheres hiding deep into the layers of the Earth.
  5. Achaeans live in clusters; ooze out most methane gas into the atmosphere claiming themselves as methanogens. These methanogens contribute to most of the world’s methane content, becoming the triggering culprits of greenhouse gas emissions and global warming inspite of our efforts to diffuse the emission.
  6. These are organisms with a blessing in disguise as they aid in the proper functioning of the ecosystem as well recycle the elements such as carbon, nitrogen and sulfur balancing the geochemical cycle and comprise an estimated 20 percent of the world’s biomass.
  7. We only know that the chemical prints of archaea have established themselves in the recent years. In contrast, their respective patches were reported to exist since when the Earth was just an infant trying to support life. This was discovered first from the Messel oil shale of Germany, a stunning site of rich geologic history of fossil records.
  8. The presence of enzymes within these extremophiles significantly revolutionized the field of molecular biology by application to clone DNA. In industry their enzymes work over high temperature conditions allowing food processing. Sewage treatment was accomplished by these microorganisms with their ability to anaerobically digest and produce biogas. They prepare themselves to offer us with the extraction of metals from ores including gold, cobalt and copper. They are also expected to open the doors to a host of potentially useful antibiotics.


Archaebacteria differ from all other bacteria (which are sometimes called eubacteria). Archaebacteria are so named because biochemical evidence indicates that they evolved before the eubacteria and have not undergone significant change since then. The Archaebacteria generally grow in extreme environments and have unusual lipids in their cell membranes and distinctive RNA molecules in their cytoplasm.
They are kept in  Sub-kingdom of the kingdom Prokaryote, which, on the basis of both RNA and DNA composition and biochemistry, differs significantly from other bacteria. They are thought to resemble ancient bacteria that first arose in extreme environments such as Sulphur-rich, deep-sea vents. Archaebacteria have unique protein-like cell walls and cell membrane chemistry, and distinctive ribosomes.
Commonly found archaea are a group of  methanogens , They include methane-producing bacteria, which use simple organic compounds such as methanol and acetate as food, combining them with carbon dioxide and hydrogen gas from the air, and releasing methane as a by-product. Anaerobic bacteria found in swamps, sewage, and other areas of decomposing matter. These bacteria are of hot springs and saline areas have a variety of ways of obtaining food and energy, including the use of minerals instead of organic compounds. The methanogens reduce carbon dioxide to methane gas in their metabolism. A second group are the halobacteria, a group of rods that live in high‐salt environments. These bacteria have the ability to obtain energy from light by a mechanism different from the usual process of photosynthesis. The third type of Archaebacteria are the extreme thermophiles. These bacteria live at extremely high temperatures, such as in hot springs, and are associated with extreme acid environments Some hot springs bacteria can tolerate temperatures up to 88°C (190°F) and acidities as low as pH 0.9. One species, Thermoplasma, may be related to the ancestor of the nucleus and cytoplasm of the more advanced eukaryote cells.  Like the other Archaebacteria, the extreme thermophiles lack peptidoglycan in their cell walls. Many depend on sulfur in their metabolism, and many produce sulfuric acid as an end‐product.
Although the domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya were founded on genetic criteria, biochemical properties also indicate that the archaea form an independent group within the prokaryotes and that they share traits with both the bacteria and the eukaryotes. Major examples of these traits include:
1. Cell walls: virtually all bacteria contain peptidoglycan in their cell walls; however, archaea and eukaryotes lack peptidoglycan. Various types of cell walls exist in the archaea. Therefore, the absence or presence of peptidoglycan is a distinguishing feature between the archaea and bacteria.
2. Fatty acids: bacteria and eukaryotes produce membrane lipids consisting of fatty acids linked by ester bonds to a molecule of glycerol. In contrast, the archaea have ether bonds connecting fatty acids to molecules of glycerol. Although a few bacteria also contain ether-linked lipids, no archaea have been discovered that contain ester-linked lipids.
3. Complexity of RNA polymerase: transcription within all types of organisms is performed by an enzyme called RNA polymerase, which copies a DNA template into an RNA product. Bacteria contain a simple RNA polymerase consisting of four polypeptides. However, both archaea and eukaryotes have multiple RNA polymerases that contain multiple polypeptides. For example, the RNA polymerases of archaea contain more than eight polypeptides. The RNA polymerases of eukaryotes also consist of a high number of polypeptides (10–12), with the relative sizes of the polypeptides being similar to that of hyperthermophile archaeal RNA polymerase. Therefore, the archaeal RNA polymerases more closely resemble RNA polymerases of eukaryotes rather than those of bacteria.
4. Protein synthesis: various features of protein synthesis in the archaea are similar to those of eukaryotes but not of bacteria. A prominent difference is that bacteria have an initiator tRNA(transfer RNA) that has a modified methionine, whereas eukaryotes and archaea have an initiator tRNA with an unmodified methionine.
5. Metabolism: various types of metabolism exist in both archaea and bacteria that do not exist in eukaryotes, including nitrogen fixation, denitrification, chemolithotrophy, and hyperthermophilic growth. Methanogenesis (the production of methane as a metabolic by-product) occurs only in the domain Archaea, specifically in the subdivision Euryarchaeota. Classical photosynthesis using chlorophyll has not been found in any archaea.
The metabolic strategies utilized by the archaea are thought to be extraordinarily diverse in nature. For example, halophilic archaea appear to be able to thrive in high-salt environments because they house a special set of genes encoding enzymes for a metabolic pathway that limits osmosis. That metabolic pathway, known as the methyl aspartate pathway, represents a unique type of anaplerosis (the process of replenishing supplies of metabolic intermediates; in this instance the intermediate is methyl aspartate). Halophilic Archaean’s, which include Haloarcula marismortui, a model organism used in scientific research, are thought to have acquired the unique set of genes for the methyl aspartate pathway via a process known as horizontal gene transfer, in which genes are passed from one species to another.

In Vitro Fertilization and Test tube baby

Britain’s fertility regulator Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) has allowed doctors to create country’s first ‘three-parent’ babies through mitochondrial donation therapy (or MRT). This move is aimed at preventing passage of incurable genetic diseases from mothers to offsprings.
Key Facts
HEFA has approved procedures to be applied on two women in the city of Newcastle in northeast England. The procedure will use MRT for the women, having neurodegenerative disorder genes which causes problem with movement or mental functioning.It will create first three parent baby in UK within a year.
Mitochondrial Replacement Therapy (MRT)
MRT or Mitochondrial donation is medical technique in which defective mitochondria carried by a woman is replaced with the healthy mitochondria of a donor. Through invitro fertilization technique (IVF), the egg is then fertilised with the partner’s sperm. Thus the embryo remains free from any such defects. The two most common techniques in mitochondrial donation are maternal spindle transfer and pronuclear transfer. UK was first country to officially pass law to allow three parent baby. But procedure was successfully tested in Mexico, giving birth to world’s first three parent baby in September 2016.
  • It will prevent transmission of mitochondrial (genetic) disease from one generation to the next.
  • It will give parents chance of having a child that is over 99% genetically matched to them and most importantly free of the mitochondrial disease.
  • It has no impact on personality or looks of the offspring from third DNA set, as surrogate mitochondrial DNA is separate from core DNA in cells.

Human Eggs Are now Developed in Lab

Scientists from Britain and United States for first time have succeeded in growing human eggs in laboratory from earliest stages in ovarian tissue all way to full maturity. This is the first time human eggs have been developed outside the human body from their earliest stage to full maturity.
Key Facts
Using this technique in previous studies, scientists had developed mouse eggs in laboratory to stage where they produced live offspring, and also matured human eggs from a relatively late stage of development. The technology remains at early stage, and much more work is needed to make sure that it is safe and optimised before these eggs remain normal during process, and can be fertilised to form embryos that could lead to birth of healthy babies.
This technique widens scope of available fertility treatments. It can help in developing regenerative medicine therapies and new infertility treatments. It can help cancer patients wishing to preserve their fertility while undergoing chemotherapy treatment, improve fertility treatments, and deepen scientific understanding of the biology of the earliest stages of human life.



Pesticides are utilized to shield the products from destructive nuisances and to avert financial misfortunes. Utilization of chemicals in inordinate way can likewise indicate awful effect on nature and regular assets. The idea that 'pesticide as panacea' had been changed lately because of the perilous impacts on human, creatures and nature. Manufactured pesticides like DDT methyl bromide, organophosphates and pyrethroids and so forth, are indicating different ecological, medical problems incorporating resistance advancement in target bothers. Consequently there is expanded research on natural farming and a moving spotlight on contrasting options to grow new Biopesticides. WHO evaluated passing’s as high as 20000 worldwide consistently separated from different unsafe impacts of pesticides, for example, cancer-causing nature, teratogenicity, neural disarranges, high and intense remaining danger, longer corruption periods and collection as nourishment deposits. In display situation, the accentuation has moved from pesticides to Biopesticides a conceivable method for Yield security. Biopesticides are the vermin control operators which are planned from plant, creature and microbial sources. Biopesticides are the pesticides which depend on the organic measure and are normally delivered biochemical substance, non-harmful and can be utilized in bother control. The plants were presented a few exgenes which keeps them from the nuisance called as transgenic plants or hereditarily changed plants. These are the sorts of pesticides got from the characteristic materials as creatures, plants, microorganisms, infections, organisms and certain minerals and proteins . Biopesticides are utilized to control irritations, pathogens, and weeds by assortment of means. It has been trusted that the Biopesticides have botanic starting point as they were monetarily removed from plants. Biopesticides can be utilized by anybody searching for an option bother administration approach. E.g.: business cultivators, agriculturists, elaborate bloom producers, nursery worker's etc. The pests incorporate illnesses, creepy crawlies, bugs, and weeds that harm trims and lessen edit yield and quality. Numerous Biopesticides are more earth neighborly than engineered pesticides . For the most part Biopesticides are comprised of living things and which are originates from living things. Their little amounts can be viable and they are effectively flimsy along these lines less contaminations . The Biopesticides section possesses a little part of the extensive pesticide advertise in India. In 2005, it represented only 2.89%, which was required to increment by 2.3%. Until 2011, there were 12 distinct sorts of Biopesticides enrolled in India . It is engaged while planning a pesticide Microorganisms and plant based biochemical speak to an option way in light of their security to people and non target creatures, both in singular applications and inside coordinated vermin administration (IPM).
As indicated by their root from the species or living beings Biopesticides are extensively arranged in to three noteworthy classifications:

1. Microbial Pesticides 
The Biopesticides got or created from the smaller scale life forms are eluded as Microbial Pesticides, For example, microscopic organisms, growths, and other protozoan gathering. These are generally target particular life forms which are meant to murdering one or gathering of vermin. .Most generally utilized is bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis which delivers an end poison amid spore arrangement and causes lyses of gut cells when devoured by bugs. Agrobacterium radiobacter is utilized to control crown gall
2. Biochemical Pesticides 
These are home grown based substances which are normally delivered by a plant or a life form. These are non-lethal and biodegradable substances. They help the plant in counter-assaulting its bugs or creating chemicals that would avoid bug assault on the plant or harms the bugs in a request to counteract plant. Illustrations are unsaturated fats, hormones. Chemical mixer or their manufactured analogs discharged by creatures or plants for protective purposes or to pass data among collaborating species are alluded to as Biochemical. Most broadly utilized Biochemical for trim insurance is creepy crawly sex hormones utilized for bother control and mass catching.
3. Plant Incorporated Protectants
These are the hereditarily altered substances created in vitro in a way to which plant delivers its own particular pesticide (in vivo) when presented in plants. Plant concentrate and vegetable oil based items Citronella oil, Garlic separate, Neem remove, Datura, orange oil , tea tree extricate, Basil, Lemon grass, Apple mint, mustard, Castor, Mahagony, sesame and numerous more optional metabolites of plant are utilized as Biopesticides against bugs. Most generally utilized plant compound is Neem oil. Pyrethrins are likewise utilized as bug sprays and removed from Chrysanthemum cineraria folium plants - principally found in bloom. Pyrethrins have low harmfulness to warm blooded animals and debase quickly after application bringing about the advancement of manufactured pyrethrins. PhomaTech is a market accessible plant based Biocontrol operator.

History of Vaccines

Variolation is also called engrafting was introduced in England in 1721, in which dried pus was introduced from smallpox pustules into the skin of the patient. The vaccination came into existance back hundreds of years. In 1796, Edward Jenner inoculated a 13-year old boy by vaccina virus (cowpox) and demonstrated the immunity against smallpox. The process of inoculation was first used by Chinese physicians in the 10th century. Smallpox was a contagious and deadly disease, causing the death of 20% - 60% of infected adults and over 80% of infected children. Smallpox was eradicated in 1979, after killing 300-500 million people in 20th century.  After this he gained the title of vaccination in 17th century. In 1897 and 1904 Louis Pasteur discovered attenuated live cholera and inactivated anthrax vaccine in humans respectively. In the late 19th century plague vaccine was also invented. In 1990s, Arntzen developed the concept of edible vaccines. Bacillis- Calmette- Gnerin (BCG) was  invented in between 1890 and 1950 which is still used. In 1923, a method was developed to inactivate tetanus toxin with formaldehyde by Alexander Glenny. The same method was used to develop diptheria vaccine in the year 1926. In modern times, vaccines had eradicated many diseases which have been very useful. The first disease to be targeted was smallpox. After that in 1988, the WHO targeted Polio by 2000. After all this some vaccines are still elusine for many dangerous diseases like herpes, malaria, gonorrhea and HIV. In the 20th century, protection against foreign pathogens with low degree of antigen variability increased because of the development of vaccines. 


BLOWFLY (Calliphoridae)

BLOW FLIES (calliphoridae) DON'T SWEAT 

Blowflies have been created a cooling technique by drooling to a high art.  The fly's technique isn't sweating. Sweat evaporates taking a tiny amount of body heat with it. Blowfly droplets put the cooling power of their natural fluids to use in a different way, In hot times these sturdy big eyed flies repeatedly release and then retract a drop of cooling saliva. The saliva hangs on a fly's mouthparts,  There the droplet starts to lose some of its heat to the air when the droplet has cooled a bit, the fly then slurps it back it, the same droplet seemed to be released, cooled, drawn back in and then drooled again. The insect repeated this several times in a row.  This may prevent dangerous overheating. After several droolings, the fly's body temperature can drop up to 4 degrees Celsius below that the surrounding air. 

In Vitro Fertilization

                               INTRODUCTION  TO  IVF
 The  term  in  vitro  means  in  glass or  in  artificial  conditions  and  IVF  refers  to  the  fact  that fertilization  of  egg  by sperm  had  occurred  not  in  uterus  but  outside  the  uterus  at  artificially maintained  optimum  condition.  The  IVF  technology  has  revolutionized  the  field  of  animal biotechnology  because  a  production  of  more  and  more  animals  as  compared  to  animal production  through  normal  course.  For  an  example  an  animal  produces  about  6-8  offspring’s but  through  the  IVF  technology  it  produces  about  50-60  offspring’s in  her  life  time,  so  the  IVF technology  holds  a  great  promise  because  a  large  no.  of  animals  in  same  duration  of  life  by maintaining  the  gene  pool  of  animal  population. In  India  M.L.    Madan,  animal  embryo-biotechnologist  at  National  dairy  Research  Institute, karnal  (Haryana)  has  got  the  success  in  producing  more  calves  in  cows.
The  IVF  technology  is  very  useful  it  involves  the  following  protocols:
   Taking  out the  eggs  from  ovaries  of  female  donor.
  In vitro  maturation of  egg  cultures  kept  in  an  incubator.
  Fertilization  of  eggs  in  test  tubes  by  semen obtained  from  super  male.
   Implantation  of  seven  days  old  embryo  in  reproductive  tract  of  other  recipient  female which  acts  as  surrogate  mother.    (The  surrogate  mother  does  not  contribute  in  anything in  terms  of  genetic  makeup  since  the  same  comes  from  the  egg  of  donor  mother  and semen  from  artificial  insemination.)
  IVF  is  one  of  several  assisted  reproductive  techniques  (ART) used  to  help  infertile couples  to  conceive  a  child.
 If after  one  year  of  having  sexual  intercourse  without  the  use  of  birth control  a  woman  is  unable  to  get  pregnant,  infertility is  suspected.  Some  major  reasons for  infertility are  damaged  or  blocked  fallopian  tubes,  hormonal  imbalance  or endometriosis in the  woman.  In  the  man,  low sperm  count  or  poor  quality sperm  can cause  infertility.
   IVF  is  one  of  several  possible  methods  to  increase  the  chance  for  an  infertile  couple  to become  pregnant.
  IVF  will  not  work  for  a  woman  who  is  not  capable  of  ovulating  or  a  man  who  is  not  able to  produce  at  least  a  few healthy  sperm.   

Sometimes  viable  embryos  do  not  implant  in  uterine  wall  simply  because  they  are unable  to  break  free  from  their  surrounding  “jelly coat”  called  zona  pellucida.  The assisted  hatching  performed  in  lab  right  before  embryo  transfer  using  a  laser  to  create  a hole  in  the  zona.  This  allows  the  embryo  to  hatch  and  make  contact  with  the  lining  of the  uterus  and  implant.
In  this  technique,  a  single  sperm  is  injected  into  the  cytoplasm  (interior) of  the  egg. Today  the  use  of  ICSI  is  now  routinely  applied  to  a  wide  range  of  clinical  situations whenever  there  is  a  possibility  that  fertilization  may  not  occur.  Such  situations  may include  unexplained  infertility  or  when  frozen  sperm  samples  survive  their  selves  poorly.
In  the  past  it  is  preferred  to  perform  fresh  embryo  transfers  for  most  patients  because the  embryos  had  a  better  chance  of  implanting  and  developing  into  a  baby then  frozen embryos  did.  However  over  the  past  several  years  vitrificaton  techniques  for  freezing and  thawing  embryos  have  improved  so  much  that  frozen  embryos  now  have  an  equal or  perhaps  better  chance  of  implanting  than  fresh  embryos.  When  there  is  a  planned “freeze  all  embryos”  IVF  cycle  the  developing  embryos  are  frozen  via  vitrificaton  and stored  until  they  are  transferred  at  a  later  time.  This  technique  is  especially beneficial for  woman  at  a  risk  of  hyper  ovarian  stimulation  caused  by  the  medications  used  to produce  multiple  eggs  during  the  cycle.
 PGS  help  us  to  answer  the  questions  of  which  embryos  have  the  greatest  potential  to become  a  healthy pregnancy.  PGS  gives  the  patient  two  advantages  first  it  gives  us  to  be 99% certain  the  embryos  have  the  correct  number  of  chromosomes  thereby increasing the  chance  for  a  healthy  pregnancy.  Second  I  allows  the  patient  to  transfer  only  one embryo  thereby  decreasing  the  chance  of  twins  (  which  have  much  higher  rate  of complications). 
Dr.  John  Storment  ,  medical  director  at  fertility  answers,  US


Edible Vaccine

Edible vaccines are nothing but  transgenic plant and animal based production of  or those that contain agents that trigger an animal’s immune response. In simple terms, edible vaccines are plant or animal made pharmaceuticals. The earliest demonstration of an edible vaccine was the expression of a surface antigen from the bacterium Streptococcus mutans  in tobacco. As this bacterium causes dental caries, it was envisaged that the stimulation of a mucosal immune response would prevent the bacteria from colonizing the teeth and therefore protect against tooth decay.

Working Of Edible Vaccines

How Does An Edible Vaccine Work?

Initial response to vaccines 

When a disease agent appear 

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The primary thought of pesticides was presented in mid seventeenth century. In spite of the fact that at in mid seventeenth century plants extricates were likely utilized and later they are eluded as Biopesticides . Later investigations were set down to the advancement of manufactured pesticides which were driven by the normally happening pesticides (Biopesticides). As historical records, nicotine was utilized to control plum creepy crawlies as right on time as the seventeenth century. Examinations including organic controls for creepy crawly bothers in agribusiness go back similar to 1835.
Later in nineteenth century mineral oils were utilized as plant protectants. Amid the fast extension of horticultural research amid mid twentieth century, a regularly developing investigation and proposition over Biopesticides were produced.
The first and still most broadly utilized Biopesticides included spores of microbes Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). In 1901, Bt was confined from a sick silkworm by Japanese researcher Shigetane Ishwita. In the mid twentieth century innovative work proceeded at low level due to the broad appropriation of less expensive however more harmful engineered concoction bug spray. Amid the mid twentieth century Biopesticides advancement for the control of plant sickness has experienced a comparable change, investigations of soil microbiology and biology had prompted the ID of a wide range of microorganisms that go about as foes of pathogens and creepy crawly bugs . In 1940s the overwhelming and uncontrolled utilization of manufactured pesticides produced using chemicals was begun. Till then in India normal bug sprays were utilized (Rotenone from the foundations of derris plant, and pyrethrum from the blossom leaders of types of chrysanthemum). Following 20 years it was discovered that the levels of manufactured pesticides was fabricating and were not biodegradable and their hurtful impacts turning out. Since first century Neem plant has been utilized for restorative reason and control of specific sicknesses in India.

Accordingly Neem has different hostile properties, and it had been utilized as a part of different approaches to ensure greenery. It has been discovered that chemicals removed out of their seeds and seed pieces are successful Biopesticides. From that point the utilization of Neem as pesticide in India was begun.
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Antimicrobial peptides A Brief

Mechanism and Antimicrobial Application of Histatin 5, Defensin and  Cathelicidin Peptides Derivatives  

Peptides are the expression of genes which are regulated by the defense mechanism of the cell. Antipeptides or proteins are the inhibitory factors or proteins which are being designed to inhibit the function of defective ones. AMP's Kill cells in various ways lie by upsetting layer respectability, by repressing proteins, DNA and RNA union, or by collaborating with certain intracellular targets. All AMPs known by the late-90s are cationic. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are oligopeptides with a varying number (from five to over a hundred) of amino acids. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have broad spectrum of antimicrobial action against microscopic organisms like viruses, fungi, and parasites. In this article the action and mechanism of the antimicrobial activities of peptides which are actually called Proteins are discussed. The little cationic peptides are multifunctional as effectors of natural invulnerability on skin and mucosal surfaces and have shown coordinate antimicrobial movement against different microorganisms, infections, organisms, and parasites. Histatin 5, Defensin and Cathelicidins are the peptides which are found in animals and plants which have their own functions against hosts.
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