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CLONING | Advantage to Prokaryotes or US!

Scientifically the species which are the exact copies of their parents are termed as clones and the process is called as cloning. Clones are formed by asexual reproduction without any genetic alterations ( as occurs in sexual reproduction ). The species produced via this type of technique have limited life spans and low chances of survival. 
According to the theory of evolution, the species  which fits themselves best in environment have better chances of survival and every species have some sort of variations as compared to their parents which makes them suitable for the changing environment. Its amazing that the Prokaryotes produces via asexual reproduction in which are exact copy of their parents, still most of them survives in harsh environmental conditions. 

Post Reproduction Adaptations 

It is  seen in species that after the reproduction they might adapt some changes at genetic level both Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes. This mostly seen in Prokaryotes because they need lot of changes to survive.
Single Cell species which reproduce through asexual reproduction have greater abilities to adapt the environmental changes at their genetic level so that their next progenies will already have and not facing problems. But this adaptation is very quick and limited only few species are able to adapt rest of them are dead. This maintains their population because sigle cell species are disease causing agents for Eukaryotes,  if their population increase drastically others may face problems.

Why they produce via Asexual mode? 

The Prokaryotes are harmful for Eukaryotes as they are disease causing agents. However they contribute a lot in the ecosystem.( discussed in next section). Here are the major reasons:

  • Their population is controlled because they  replicate themselves as very high frequency if all of them able to survive than whole ecosystem will unbalanced soon. 
  • Being a single cell they have best mode of regulation of their next generation, however some species are able to produce via sexual mode of reproduction during extreme conditions e.g: Aspergillus

Application in Biotechnology 

Their rapid growth and multiplication attracted scientists and researchers to use them as natural bioreactors. Along with their life cycle they produce some metabolic chemicals which are benifitable sometime and sometime harmful. 

  • Production of antibiotics by  bacteria and fungi. Streptomycin,tetracycline and erythromycin are some of the commonly known antibiotics which are made from fungi and bacteria.
  • Production of Chemicals, Enzymes and other Bioactive Molecules
  • Examples of acid producers are
  • Aspergillus niger (a fungus) of citric acid
  • Acetobacter aceti (a bacterium) of acetic acid
  • Clostridium butylicum (a bacterium) of butyric acid
  • Lactobacillus (a bacterium) of lactic acid.
  • Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is used for commercial production of ethanol.
  • Lipases are used in detergent formulations and are helpful in removing oily stains from the laundry.
  • The bottled juices are clarified by the use of pectinases and proteases.
  • Streptokinase produced by the bacterium Streptococcus and modified by genetic engineering is used as a ‘clot buster’ for removing clots from the blood vessels of patients who have undergone myocardial infraction leading to heart attack.
  • Another bioactive molecule, cyclosporin A, that is used as an immunosuppressive agent in organ-transplant patients, is produced by the fungus Tnchoderma polysporum.
  • Statins produced by the yeast Monascus purpureus have been commercialized as blood-cholesterol lowering agents. It acts by competitively inhibiting the enzyme responsible for synthesis of cholesterol.
  • Conversion of Milk into Curd by Lactobacillus. 
  • Fermentation of milk in industries. 
  • Sewage treatment.
  • Production of Biogas. 
  • Microbes as biocontrol agents : Biocontrol refers to the use of biological methods for controlling plant diseases and pests. Biological agents are a better alternative to weedicides and pesticides.
  • Microbes as Biofertilisers. 
NCERT  text books from 6 to 12.


Gene Therapy | Medical Evolution

Now a days it is being focused on the functionality and the speciality of genes to use them as precursor of antipeptides, so in case of any disorder no need to give antipeptides externally. Gene therapy is an emerging technique in which genes are preferred to treat or prevent the disorders inspite of using drugs and surgery’s. Researchers are testing possible approaches to gene therapy including,Replacing a mutated or defective gene that causes disease with a healthy copy of the gene, Inactivating, or “knocking out,” a mutated gene that is functioning improperly,Introducing a new gene which produces the anti effectives into the body to help fight a disease. Although gene therapy is a promising treatment option for a number of diseases like  inherited disorders, some types of cancer, and on certain viral infections, But this technique remains risky and is still under study to make sure that it will be safer and effective. Gene therapy is currently being tested only for diseases that have no other cures.


Genes are the basic inheritance and regulatory molecules which commands the cell via expressing themselves in terms of proteins. Therapy with using genes is  a  novel  treatment method  in which    genes  or  short  oligonucleotide sequences  used as  therapeutic  molecules, instead of  using conventional  drug compounds and surgery’s . This technique  is  widely  used to treat  those  defective  genes  which are responsible in the development of diseases [1,2]. The treatment is better and preferred over conventional drugs methods [2]. Our genetic program is made up of thousand of genes, stretches of DNA, that generally code for different proteins that do particular jobs in the cells in our body. The idea of using drugs and antipeptides is replaced by gene therapy, as the genes express them selves in terms of peptides [3]. 


The first idea of gene therapy was introduced by Theodore Friedmann and Richard Roblin during 1960’s. They are the first who gave the concept of treatment via introducing a particular gene which lasts to the next generations [4]. Now we have several gene editing and inserting tools e.g: CRISPR-CAS9,  which may be useful in cancer and viral treatments.


The research and the exploration of inherent molecules such as RNA and DNA gave rise to the concept of treating disorders and syndromes directly by an organism itself for life time.  As the inherent molecules have the capability to transfer generation over generation so transferring the gene of interest is permanent cure for the syndromes and disorders.

  • The genes have the ability to inherit in next generation thus leading to permanent cure for the disorders and syndromes.
  • Gene are the regulatory molecules present in cell so the defective ones can be removed which results in the permanent cure with no further medication.


  1. Bainbridge, J. W. B.;  Smith, A.  J.;  Barker, S. S.;  Robbie, S.;  Henderson, R.;  Balaggan, K.;  Viswanathan, A.;  Holder, G. E. et  al. (2008). "Effect  of  Gene  Therapy  on Visual Function in  Leber's  Congenital  Amaurosis". New  England Journal  of  Medicine  358 (21): 2231–2239.   
  2. Genetic Science Learning Center. (2012, December 1) What is Gene Therapy?. Retrieved January 30, 2018, from
  3. Shalini Jaiswal*, 2Gautam Singh, Jawwad Husain2  1Assistant Professor, Chemistry Department, AMITY University, Noida Campus, India.  2Biotechnology Department, AMITY University, Noida Campus, India. *Corresponding author’s E-mail:  “Mechanism and Antimicrobial Application of Histatin 5, Defensin and  Cathelicidin Peptides Derivatives”
  4. Theodore Friedmann and Richard Roblin  "Gene therapy for human genetic disease?" 1972 Mar 3;175(4025):949-55


Venom or Poison |

Venom and poison both are similar words but biologically they  are different. Many people thinks about venom and poison same thing here are the difference between them :


It is a natural poison secreted by reptiles and some other creatures. Venom is poisonous when it is injected in bloodstream only it never harm when eaten or drink through mouth. Venom is less harmful than artificial poisons and its effects and symptoms are slow to increase. Venom contains several enzymes or enzyme blocking parts which when comes in contact with blood stops the functionality of blood.
However some snakes have very dangerous venom like cobra and other related species but they can also be cured there anti-venoms have been developed. However survival rate is quite low because the patient can't be taken hospital within an hour. 


It may be artificial or natural but in most of dangerous poison they are artificially made. They are much more toxic than venoms.  Their effect is too quick and fast. Some poisons are too much dangerous that they kill eventually when come contact with the person's inner part. Poison is harmful in both cases when comes in contact with bloodstream or in mouth.  Poison is designed to work on the metabolic pathways. Metabolic activities occur in every part of human body so wherever it will present start affecting.

Remember a person can be saved when he/she is infected with venom, by poison still hard to save. 


Lymphocytes | Guardians of Immunity

Lymphocytes are the White Blood Cells also called as Leukocytes. Which comprises of Natural Killer cells B and T cells. These are very important for maintaining the immune system because these are the cells which fight against,  identify and kill the infectious micro-organisms and other foreign substances. Bone marrow constantly produces cells that will become lymphocytes. Some will enter in bloodstream, but most will move through  lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is the group of tissues and organs, like the spleen, tonsils, and lymph nodes, that protect our body from infection. About 25 percent of the new lymphocytes remain in the bone marrow and become B cells. The other 75 percent travel to  thymus and become T cells.

The two main types of lymphocytes are known as T and B cells. These two types of lymphoid cells are developed and differentiated in the primary lymphoid organs. For example, T cells are developed in the thymus, where as the B lymphocytes are differentiated in the adult bone marrow and fetal liver. In birds, B cells are differentiated in the bursa of Fabricius. Further more, in the primary lymphoid organs T and B cells precursors acquire the ability for recognizing antigens through the development of specific surface receptors. NK- cells do not express antigen receptors on their cell membranes. They are capable to lyse certain tumor cell lines in vitro without being sensitized. NK cells are large granular lymphocytes (LGLs) Lymphocytes are produced in the primary lymphoid organs (thymus and adult bone marrow) at a high rate 109 per day. Some of these cells migrate to the blood circulation via the secondary lymphoid tissues (spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue). The average human adult has about 1012 lymphoid cell, and approximately 2% of the body weight is a lymphoid tissues. Lymphoid cells represent about 20% of the total leukocytes population in the adult circulation. Many mature lymphoid cells are long-lived, and may persist as a memory cells for several years, or even for the live time of the individual. 

Availability of Lymphocytes in the Body 

  • Lymphocytes in the Blood Stream  
  • Lymphocytes Outside the Bloodstream, in the Lymph vessels   
  • Lymphocytes in the Lymph Nodes

What lymphocytes do in the body ?

There are actually many differences between B-cells and T-cells, even though they are both lymphocytes. B-cells and T-cells are associated with different parts of the immune system. One part of the immune system—the more B-cell dominant part—is focused on making antibodies that can bind to foreign invaders and lead to their destruction. The other part of the immune system—the more T-cell dominant part—is focused on recognizing the invaders and then directly killing them, through a very specific recognition sequence that leads to cell-to-cell battle. These two different turfs or part are described by specific terms. The artillery, or the antibody-producing side, is known as humoral immunity. The infantry, or the cell-to-cell battle side, is known as cell-mediated immunity.
B-cells are the cells that come to mind when thinking about antibodies, or humoral immunity, and T-cells are the cells that come to mind when thinking about cell-to-cell combat, cytotoxicity, or so-called cell-mediated immunity. In reality, there is often cooperation between B-cells and T-cells, just as there is coordination between those who fire the mortars and the infantry.
B-cells mature in the bone marrow and move to the lymph nodes. B-cells become plasma cells or memory cells when foreign antigens activate them; most B-cells become antibody-producing plasma cells; only some remain as memory cells. Memory B-cells help ensure that if the enemy is encountered again in the future, the mortars are prepared. Plasma cells can be found in lymph nodes and elsewhere in the body, where they work to produce large volumes of antibodies. Once antibodies are released into the blood and lymph, these antibody molecules bind to the target antigen to begin the process of neutralizing or destroying the foreign agent.
T-cells mature in the thymus and differentiate into different types. There are several types of T cells, including the following:
Cytotoxic T cells find and directly attack foreigners such as bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells.
Helper T cells recruit other immune cells and organize an immune response.
Regulatory T cells are thought to suppress the immune system so that it doesn't overreact (as it does in autoimmune diseases), however central aspects of the biology of these cells remain shrouded in mystery and continue to be hotly debated.
Natural killer T (NKT) cells are not the same thing as natural killer cells, but they do have similarities. NKT cells are cytotoxic T cells that need to be pre-activated and differentiate to do their work. Natural killer (NK) cells and NKT cells are subsets of lymphocytes that share common ground. Both can rapidly respond to the presence of tumor cells and participate in anti-tumor immune responses.
Memory T cells remember markers on the surface of bacteria, viruses, or cancer cells that they have seen before.

Difference between B and T cell
S.No B Cell T Cell
1. Responsible for humoral immunity  Responsible for cell mediated immunity 
2. Life span is short  Life span is long 
3. Differentiate inside bone marrow  Differentiate inside thymus gland 
4. Surface antibodies present  Absence of surface antibodies 
5. Transformed into plasma cells by antigens  Transformed in small lymphocytes by antigens 
6. Secrete antibodies  Secrete Lymphokines
7. Sub population are memory cells and plasma cells  Sub population are cytotoxic T,  Helper cells and Suppressor cells 
8. B-Cells or B-lymphocytes produce antibodies  Stimulates phagocytes and B cells in to activity


Vitamins | Generic name, Sources and Functions

Generally there are 13 vitamins found in nature. These 13 vitamins are vital for human metabolism and immunity as they are the mutual part of several enzymes. You have heard about Vitamin B complex it is the most abundant and required complex found in nature. Vitamin B complex comprises of five B vitamins except B7,   B9 and B12. For details scroll bellow to find more....... 
Name of Vitamin Generic Name(s) Sources  Functions 
Vitamin A Retinol, Beta-carotene

Retinol from animal sources-: eggs,  liver,  fish

Beta-carotene from plant source-: green vegetables,  carrot,  orange

Vision,  Skin,  Mucous membranes 
Vitamin B1  Thiamine  Pork, Wheat, grain,  Breads,  Cereals, Legumes, Nuts & Seeds Part of an enzyme,  Energy metabolism,  Nerve function
Vitamin B2 Riboflavin Milk and its Products,  Green vegetables,  Cereals,  Whole grain Part of an enzyme, Energy metabolism,  Skin Health 
Vitamin B3 Niacin, Niacinamide, Nicotinamide  Meat,  Poultry,  Fish,  Cereals,  Green vegetables,  Butter,  Mushrooms  Part of an enzyme, Energy metabolism, Skin Health,  Digestive System 
Vitamin B5 Pantothenic acid  Milk,  Vegetables,  Fruits Part of an Enzyme, Energy metabolism 
Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine, Pyridoxamine  Meat,  Poultry,  Vegetables,  Fruits Part of an enzyme,  Protein metabolism,  RBC formation
Vitamin B7 Biotin Milk, Vegetables,  Fruits,  Produced in gut by bacteria Hairs, Part of an enzyme,  Energy metabolism 
Vitamin B9 Folic acid  Green vegetables, Legumes, Seeds, Orange juice, Liver Part of an enzyme,  RBC DNA & New cell formation
Vitamin B12 Cynocobalamine, Methylcobalamine, Adenosylcobalamine, Hydroxocobalamine  Meat,  Poultry,  Fish,  Sea food Part of an enzyme,  New cell formation, Nerve function
Vitamin C Ascorbic acid  Citrus fruits,  Vegetables, Tomatoes, Pepper  Antioxidant, Protein metabolism, Immune health,  Iron absorption 
Vitamin D  Ergocalciferol,  Cholecalciferol Egg, Liver,  Fish,  Milk Calcium absorption,  Bone health
Vitamin E Tocopherol PUFA, Green vegetables,  Egg,  Nuts Antioxidant, Cell wall protection 
Vitamin K Phylloquinone 

Green vegetables ( Spinach,  Broccoli ) produced in gut by bacteria 

Proper blood clotting, Strengthen Teeth & Bones



Nutreints are the basic requirements of the person but how much one should consume it is decided by the organizations which work under the government. These organizations make study over the person taking each and every situation, to find out how much a person take minerals and vitamin on daily basis. This is called RDA( Recommend Daily Allowances) which is decided by the ESPEN,  FSSAI and ICMR.  

It is a European Society of Parentreal and Entreal Nutrition. This organization provide and make the guidlines of consumption of vitamins, minerals  and proteins to the patients. 
The aim of this organization to provide basic information to the patient about their RDA. 

It is a Food Safety and Security Authority of India which gives the guidlines of consumption of vitamins,  minerals and proteins to the healthy person. 

It is a Indian Council Of Medical Research which gives the guidlines fir the consumption of vitamins , minerals and proteins to the nutrient deficent person. 

For the RDA limit given by the FSSAI and ICMR see the post on this blog ''RDA limit as per FSSAI and ICMR''



The human stomach related framework is an intricate arrangement of organs and organs that procedures nourishment. So as to utilize the nourishment we eat, our body needs to separate the sustenance into littler atoms that it can process; it likewise needs to discharge squander. 

The greater part of the stomach related organs (like the stomach and digestive organs) are tube-like and contain the sustenance as it advances through the body. The stomach related framework is basically a long, contorting tube that keeps running from the mouth to the butt, in addition to a couple of different organs (like the liver and pancreas) that create or store stomach related chemicals. 

The beginning of the procedure - the mouth: 
The stomach related process starts in the mouth. Sustenance is mostly separated by the way toward biting and by the substance activity of salivary compounds (these chemicals are created by the salivary organs and separate starches into littler particles). 

While in transit to the stomach: the throat - In the wake of being bitten and gulped, the sustenance enters the throat. The throat is a long tube that keeps running from the mouth to the stomach. It utilizes musical, wave-like muscle developments (called peristalsis) to constrain nourishment from the throat into the stomach. This muscle development enables us to eat or drink notwithstanding when we're topsy turvy. 

In the stomach - The stomach is a substantial, sack-like organ that agitates the sustenance and showers it in an exceptionally solid corrosive (gastric corrosive). Nourishment in the stomach that is mostly processed and blended with stomach acids is called chyme. 

In the small digestive system - In the wake of being in the stomach, sustenance enters the duodenum, the initial segment of the small digestive tract. It at that point enters the jejunum and afterward the ileum (the last piece of the small digestive system). In the small digestive system, bile (delivered in the liver and put away in the rankle bladder), pancreatic chemicals, and other stomach related catalysts created by the internal mass of the small digestive system help in the breakdown of sustenance. 

In the digestive organ - Subsequent to going through the small digestive system, sustenance goes into the internal organ. In the digestive organ, a portion of the water and electrolytes (chemicals like sodium) are expelled from the sustenance. Numerous microorganisms (microscopic organisms like Bacteroides, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella) in the internal organ help in the absorption procedure. The initial segment of the digestive organ is known as the cecum (the supplement is associated with the cecum). Nourishment at that point ventures upward in the climbing colon. The nourishment traversed the guts in the transverse colon, backpedals down the opposite side of the body in the sliding colon, and after that through the sigmoid colon. 

The finish of the procedure - Strong waste is then put away in the rectum until the point that it is discharged by means of the anus. 

SCIENCE : Before We Know

Before the origin of life on earth 🌍 the word science was originated because our 🏫 science starts from there. After the origin of species and life forms on earth science was developed and still evolving. 
Then the era comes when higher species were evolved which have some capabilities to understand that natural phenomenon and processes occuring in the environment. Spontaneously the species move to higher level of evolution, and today we are able to understand these phenomenon , explain them with theories, predict them and more. 
But the actual meaning of science is same in past and in future, '' Science is to analyze everything in your environment with a meaningful explanation ''.
This is we are doing since ancient  times,  our ancestors studied and analyzed them and stored in written form of explanation which today we take as examples. For example : VEDAS in Hindu religion which have lot of information about science(Medical Science)  based on the actual experimentation, Egyptian and Roman architectures  and many more. 
The previous civilizations which are lost they are very developed in science they created various large monument which modern tech can't do perfectly.
The modern science is totally based on the previous science explorations although we have created lot of technology which reduces our time and labour consumption but these tech doesn't have perfection like in ancient science. 


Why Humans Can't be a super humans or have super powers?

Humans and any other species have defined composition of genes designed  by the nature in such a way that they are fully compatible and balance their natural ecosystem. 
Being super human and having super powers means some sort of genetic mutation which violates the nature's rule and cause imbalance in nature via polluting the wild genotypes. If some how it could become possible then nature have predefined rule to prevent further imbalancing. 
In nature it is defined that if any species violates its wild genotypic composition it becomes sterile so that it can't further be produced and eliminated naturally. For example : i have to mention from plant species  generally plant have diploid in nature but through naturally and artificially there is another type called triploids which have special and very large agronomic traits but they are sterile and cant be crossed so they are produced and cloned in laboratory to obtain their products.
Another example in humans if any genetic mutation occurs which have direct or indirect impact on phenotypic expression there is about 80% chances to have them sterile.  100% not because of if the mutation is low level or changes occur at low frequency then it can not be sterile and may be beneficial. 
Comments below your queries .......


CATHELICIDINS an antimicrobial peptide

Cathelicidins, a group of peptides having 100 amino acid domains that is habitually proteolytically divided from the exceedingly variable C-terminal antimicrobial domain. In phagocytes, the cathelicidins are usually put away as latent antecedents in secretory granules. Much of the time, the preparing protein is neutrophil elastase contained in a different arrangement of capacity granules. Amid phagocytosis, this twofold framework consolidates to create dynamic antimicrobial peptides. A wealth of evidence exists to suggest cathelicidin's crucial role as an antimicrobial in the protection of epithelial surfaces, particularly the skin. The clinical significance of cathelicidins antimicrobial activity can be seen in patients with Kostmann's syndrome, a rare genetic condition resulting in severe neutropenia. Cathelicidins are precursors of many novel peptides. Cathelicidin-derived antimicrobial peptides range in length from 12 to about 100 residues, and include α-helical peptides, e.g. human LL-37/hCAP18 and pig PMAP-37 ; linear peptides with one or two predominant amino acids, e.g. the bovine Pro- and Arg-rich Bac5 and Bac7  and the Trp-rich indolicidin ; and peptides with one or two disulfide bonds, e.g. bovine cyclic dodecapeptide  and pig protegrins The general lead of the component activating Cathelicidin activity, similar to that of other antimicrobial peptides, includes the breaking down (harming and puncturing) of cell layers of creatures toward which the peptide is dynamic. Cathelicidins don't follow up on solid host cell layer. Collaboration of cationic peptides and contrarily charged lipid films of microorganisms empower their precise, parallel bond and mooring, and killing the layer charge. Changing of the auxiliary and tertiary structure of the peptide changes its opposite introduction, in this way inserting in the lipid bilayer and making transmembrane pores. In its activity against Gram– negative microscopic organisms, the peptide can move over the external film, and in the wake of passing the layer of peptidoglycan, crosses the inward film into the cytoplasm of the bacterial cell. Cathelicidin has also proven to be effective against viral infections including herpes simplex virus, vaccinia virus, and fungal infections.


DEFENSINS An Antimicrobial Peptide

Defensins are small cysteinerich cationic proteins found in both vertebrates and invertebrates. They have also been reported in plants.  Also they are assorted individuals from a substantial group of cationic host Defense peptides (HDP), generally dispersed all through the plant and creature kingdoms. Defensins and Defensin-like peptides are practically different, disturbing microbial layers and going about as ligands for cellular recognition and signaling. They function as, host defense peptides. They are active against bacteria, fungi and many enveloped and non-enveloped viruses. They consist of 18-45 amino acids including six (in vertebrates) to eight conserved cysteine residues. These (Defensin) are especially plentiful and generally dispersed antimicrobial peptides described by a cationic β-sheet rich amphipathic structure balanced out by a preserved three-disulfide motif. They extend in measure from 29 to 47 amino acids, and are bottomless in numerous vertebrate granulocytes, Paneth cells (specific granule-rich intestinal host guard cells), and on epithelial surfaces. Like the more straightforward magainins and protegrins, defensins likewise shape pores in target films. There is confirming that the permeabilization of target cells is nonlethal unless taken after by Defensin passage into the cell and extra intracellular harm. AMP productions might be both constitutive and inducible. Defensin biosynthesis is specially activated by atomic structures related with pathogens of irresistible operators and furthermore by cytokines. Animals and human alpha and beta defensins separated in 1980th are additionally subdivided into various subtypes. There are numerous subtypes of alpha and beta defensins (e.g., αdef1; αdef3; αdef4; αdef6; βdef1; βdef2; βdef4, and so forth.); in multicellular living beings they assume comparable anti-infection parts against microorganisms, organisms, and even some infections The tadefensins (Θ) have been as of late found in a few individuals from the set of all animals. These antibacterial peptides go about as commit porins on the bacterial cell divider. Not at all like the insects and mammalian defensins, are which for the most part dynamic against bacteria. Plant defensins, with a couple of exemptions, don't have antibacterial movement. Most plant defensins are engaged with resistance against an expansive scope of organisms.  They are not just dynamic against phytopathogenic growths, (for example, Fusarium culmorum and Botrytis cinerea), yet additionally against cook's yeast and human pathogenic organisms, (for example, Candida albicans. Plant defensins have likewise been appeared to hinder the development of roots and root hairs in Arabidopsis thaliana and change development of different tomato organs which can expect numerous capacities identified with safeguard and advancement. 


MALACIDINS a new class of antibiotics

Researchers from The Rockefeller University have discovered a new class of antibiotics capable of killing off several antibiotic-resistant pathogens. This new family comes from molecules present in a large variety of soils and researchers hope it could be a useful weapon in our medical arsenal.
As reported in Nature Microbiology, the antibiotic compounds are a special class of peptides – special chains of amino acids – which require calcium for antibacterial activity. Calcium-dependent antibiotics are capable of targeting bacteria in a variety of ways and this characteristic makes them particularly effective. They can target the formation of the bacterial cell membrane or even destroy the cell wall.
The team looked for new members of this antibiotic family and tested them against known pathogens. The new antibiotics, called malacidins, were successful in sterilizing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, also known as the superbug MRSA, and the bacteria attacked with the malacidins did not develop resistance.

The new family of antibiotics comes from molecules present in large variety of soils. Scientists had analysed more than 1000 unique soil samples across US to better understand how new class of antibiotics is produced and how it can be exploited for fighting bacteria. They had used DNA information that encodes production of antibiotic in daptomycin to study it. This discovery could be a useful weapon in field of medicines.


Malacidins are distinctive class of antibiotics that are commonly encoded in soil microbiomes. They have never been reported in culture-based NP (Natural Products) discovery efforts.
Malacidins are active against multidrug-resistant pathogens, sterilise methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus  (MRSA) skin infections in animal wound model and did not select for resistance in laboratory conditions.
The malacidins was tested on rats with MRSA skin infections. The condition was cured, and even after 20 days of continued contact with malacidins, the rodents did not experience any side effects.


Malacidins only target gram-positive bacteria with a very thick cell wall. It is ineffective against gram-negative bacteria which cause cholera, pneumonia, sexually transmitted diseases, and plague. Thus, it does not make it universal cure against all bacteria.


Facts about Our Digestive system

 • We eat about 500kg of food per year.
1.7 liters of saliva is produced each day.
The esophagus is approximately 25cm long.
Muscles contract in waves to move the food down the esophagus. This means that food would get to a person's stomach, even if they were standing on their head.
An adult's stomach can hold approximately 1.5 liters of material.
Every day 11.5 liters of digested food, liquids and digestive juices flow through the digestive system, but only 100 mls is lost in feces.
In the mouth, food is either cooled or warmed to a more suitable temperature.
Our digestive system has its own little mini-brain.                       
     The functioning of the digestive system is regulated by the enteric nervous system (ENS), which is made up of a tremendous amount of nerve cells and is regulated by the same neurotransmitters, most notably serotonin, found in the brain. This similarity has earned the ENS the title of the "Second Brain".our brain and digestive system work in close partnership, a phenomenon that we have first-hand knowledge of any time our stomach flips when we think of something anxiety-provoking — or more dramatically if we experience diarrhea when we are stressed. This collaboration is thought to be essential to our survival as a species; although digestion is essential for life, dealing with threats is just as necessary. The body developed the "flight or fight" system to divert resources away from the digestive system to the systems of the body needed to fight off or run away from things that might do us harm. Dysfunction in the brain-gut connection has been theorized to play a role in the development of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGDs).


Application of Histatin 5 Derivative, Defensin and Cathelicidin Peptides as Antimicrobial Agents (Amps)


Microbial Resistance Mechanism from Peptides

Protection from AMPs by a touchy strain of microorganism is improbable due to their incredible decent variety and the way that they have been powerful against bacterial contaminations for no less than 108 years. In any case, a few pathogens are more impervious to AMPs and others are more touchy. For instance, safe types of such sorts as Serratia and Morganella have an external layer lacking the proper thickness of the acidic lipids which are peptide restricting destinations. Other safe species, for example, Porphyromonas gingivalis discharge stomach related proteases that annihilate the peptide. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) are fundamental mixes of the antimicrobial weapons stores in practically a wide range of life forms, with imperative parts in microbial nature and higher organism's host defense. Numerous microscopic organisms have created countermeasures to constrain the viability of CAMPs, for example, defensins, Cathelicidins, kinocidins, or bacteriocins. The best-considered bacterial CAMP protection components include electrostatic repulsions of CAMPs by change of cell envelope particles, proteolytic cleavage of CAMPs, creation of CAMP-catching proteins, or expulsion of CAMPs by vitality subordinate efflux pumps. The collection of CAMPs created by a given host living being and the productivity of microbial CAMP protection components seem, by all accounts, to be significant in have pathogen cooperation’s, administering the structure of commensal microbial groups and the destructiveness of bacterial pathogens. Be that as it may, all CAMP protection instruments have constraints and microbes have never prevailing with regards to ending up completely inhumane to a wide scope of CAMPs. CAMPs or preserved CAMP protection factors are talked about as new middle people and targets, individually, of novel and supportable hostile to infective systems. 



Mechanism of Peptides Derivatives Anti peptides or proteins are the inhibitory factors or proteins which are being designed to inhibit the function of defective ones. A striking component among antimicrobial peptides as a gathering is their general preservation of structure and charge topics crosswise over assorted phyla. Regardless of whether combined non-ribosomal with d-and l-amino acids, or from hereditarily encoded messenger RNA, antimicrobial peptides frame amphipathic structures and are frequently cationic at physiological pH. The amphipathicity and net charge are qualities justifiably moderated among numerous antimicrobial peptides. Besides, charge liking is likely an imperative means presenting selectivity to antimicrobial peptides. With regards to these ideal models, the accompanying exchange features momentum ideas identifying with the atomic premise of antimicrobial peptide systems of activity. AMP's Kill cells by upsetting layer respectability (through communication with Negatively charged cell membrane ), by repressing proteins, DNA and RNA union, or by collaborating with certain intracellular targets.   
Be that as it may, the idea that AMPs should be cationic was changed later with the disclosure of adversely charged AMPs in 1997. For instance maximin-H5 from frog skin and dermicidin discharged from sweat organ tissues of human are both anionic peptides. By and large an AMP is just successful against one class of microorganisms (e.g., microbes or growths). Notwithstanding, there are special cases and a few AMPs are known to have diverse methods of activity against diverse sorts of microorganisms.  For instance, indolicidin can eliminate microscopic organisms, parasites, and HIV. They also displays antifungal18 exercises by making harms cell film. Be that as it may, it slaughters E. coli by entering into the phones and hindering DNA amalgamation; and it demonstrates against HIV exercises by restraining HIV-integrase. In correlation; a few AMPs have a similar method of murdering of various cell sorts. For instance, PMAP-23 can execute the two growths and parasites by framing pores in their cell layers. A fundamental necessity for any antimicrobial host safeguard or restorative operator is that it has a specific poisonous quality for the microbial target with respect to the host. In a perfect world, such mixes have fondness for at least one microbial determinant that is effortlessly open, regular to a wide range of organisms, and moderately changeless. Nature has evidently yielded a class of particles that meets these imperatives in the development of antimicrobial peptides. Antimicrobial peptides at first target microbial cells, and consequently satisfy criteria plot above for distinguishing sub-atomic determinants of pathogens that are open and comprehensively saved. 


Antimicrobial Peptide

Peptides (proteins) that are basically hydrophobic and hydrophilic and predominately either anionic or cationic are regularly found to be able to kill organisms or potentially cancer cells. There are an expansive scope of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that have been distinguished from an assortment of life forms have been found to slaughter organisms as well as execute cancer cells. Subsequently numerous AMPs are or conceivably are anticancer peptides (ACPs) .The rapid increase in drug-resistant infections has presented a serious challenge to antimicrobial and anticancer therapies. The capability of peptides in Cancer and microbial treatment is obvious from a wide range of techniques that are accessible to address the movement of tumor and disease development and proliferation of the infection. Utilization of peptides that can specifically target inadequate cells without influencing typical cells (directed treatment or targeted treatment) is advancing as a substitute system to regular chemotherapy. Peptide can be used straightforwardly as a cytotoxic operator through different systems or can go about as a bearer of cytotoxic specialists and radioisotopes by particularly focusing on disease cells. Peptide-based hormonal treatment has been broadly contemplated and used for the treatment of breast and prostate diseases. Gigantic measure of clinical information is as of now accessible authenticating the productivity of peptide-based growth and microbial immunizations. The failure of the most potent antibiotics to kill “superbugs” emphasizes the urgent need to develop other control agents.
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are oligopeptides with a varying number (from five to over a hundred) of amino acids. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are small sub-atomic weight proteins with broad spectrum   antimicrobial action against microscopic organisms like viruses, fungi, and parasites. These developmentally moderated peptides are generally positively charged and have both a hydrophobic and hydrophilic side that empowers the particle to be dissolvable in watery conditions yet likewise enter lipid-rich layers .Once in an objective microbial layer, the peptide kills target cells through differing components. Cathelicidins and defensins are real gatherings of epidermal AMPs. Diminished levels of these peptides have been noted for patients with atopic dermatitis and Kostmann's disorder, an innate neutropenia. Notwithstanding essential antimicrobial properties, developing confirmation demonstrates that AMPs modify the host invulnerable reaction through receptor-subordinate cooperation’s. AMPs have been appeared to be critical in such various capacities as angiogenesis, wound mending, and chemotaxis. As part of our research programme for development of  biologically active compounds here we are discussing the action and mechanism of the antimicrobial activities of peptides. 


Biological Role of Heavy Water

Examining of water and its connection with its natural structure uncovers an energizing and promising region of concentrates that may lead us far in comprehension of typical and neurotic procedures of life. In reality, the structure of water proposes another point of view on life itself. As of not long ago water was viewed as a pretty much nonpartisan medium filling the space between the basic components of the cell. «Water is a fundamental piece of the living being, and not only its environment». In such a way the part of water is portrayed by surely understood biophysicist Albert Szent-Györgyi in his book «Bioenergetics». We will center around a property of water, which has not yet been connected extraordinary significance. It will be an issue of natural part of that little measure of overwhelming water which is contained in normal water and, in this manner, in creatures. Most by far of standard water atoms is H2O with polluting influence of HDO particles. Honest to goodness substantial water has atoms of a kind of D2O (the distinction in the oxygen isotopes is ignored in all cases). At the point when substantial water was found (1932), the investigation of its impact on organic articles when utilized as a part of high fixations started. Thought substantial water, in which all hydrogen molecules are supplanted by deuterium, contrasts from normal water in physical properties. In normal water the nearness of a little sum (0,0149%) of overwhelming water basically does not influence its physical properties. Mixes with typical and substantial hydrogen likewise contrast from each other in compound properties. Supplanting of normal hydrogen by substantial one essentially prompts decreasing of the rate of compound responses (by 3-10 times). Normally, the substitution of a noteworthy piece of the hydrogen particles with deuterium will prompt a log jam in numerous synthetic responses that decide complex natural procedures in cells, tissues and body all in all.
Be that as it may, it is as of now conceivable to make a conclusion that the most widely recognized physical and natural contemplations show that a little change in convergence of overwhelming water in life form (even near its "typical" esteem) can give an incredible organic impact. In reality, on the off chance that we take a gander at a recipe of any natural particle, the eye gets the plenitude of hydrogen iotas. Hydrogen particle as the lightest, the most deft and effectively changed over into H+ particle or shaping a Goodness particle together with an oxygen molecule assumes an extremely uncommon part in every single biochemical process in living beings. The course of natural procedures is unavoidably connected with such physical marvels as dissemination through permeable layers, isotope trade responses and so forth., which cause an isolating isotope impact, and because of it the proportion between the quantity of H and D molecules in various parts of the body will be not quite the same as the normal for the body. It is referred to that as time passes by overwhelming water amasses in the body. This amassing in particular organs may likewise go speedier than the normal for the body because of the previously mentioned physical causes. What's more, very embellishments can make a substitution of deuterium particles hydrogen iotas in the atoms of DNA. Substitution in the DNA, for instance, 10-25% of deuterium particles by hydrogen iotas won't cause a calamity, obviously (just around 0.015% of the hydrogen particles are deuterium), since it won't change the general arrangement of advancement of the living being encoded in DNA (substantial hydrogen is still hydrogen), yet this change could influence the pace of development of new DNA atoms and along these lines the entire existence of a life form. These presumptions about the conceivable component of activity of little changes in the grouping of overwhelming water opens the field for look into in the broadest sense, starting with general natural inquiries and completion with issues of gerontology and geriatrics. Encounters with low deuterium wate are exceptionally available. Nature gives us such water in incredible sums – this is as a matter of first importance the snow water.Snow water (arranged with specific insurances) contrasted and regular stream water or rain water contains not 0.0149% of overwhelming water, but rather roughly 1/4 less (i.e. around 0,012%). Water acquired from ice is comparable in organization to the snow water. At the point when ice liquefies, the primary bunch of liquefy water is deuterium-drained, however later bits will way to deal with common stream water in the substance of substantial water. For maintainable outcomes it is conceivable to suggest just snow water.



It is also known as deuterium oxide (D2O). It is form of water that contains large amount of hydrogen isotope deuterium (heavy hydrogen). Deuterium differs from hydrogen which is usually found in water. Heavy water may be deuterium protium oxide (DHO) or deuterium oxide (D2O). The presence of deuterium increase mass of water and gives different chemical and physical property compared to normal water.
Heavy water is used in certain types of nuclear reactors, where it acts as a neutron moderator to slow down neutrons. It also used in nuclear magnetic resonance, organic chemistry, fourier transform spectroscopy, neutron moderator, neutrino detector, tritium production and metabolic rate testing in physiology and biology.


Biofuels an introduction

Since  the  energy  crises  of  the  1970s,  many  countries  have  utilized  biomass  as  a  fuel  source  to expand  the  development  of  its  domestic  and  renewable  energy  initiatives  and  reduce  the environmental  and  ecological  impact  of  energy  production.    Bioenergy  accounts  for  almost  35% of  primary  energy  consumed  in  developing  countries,  raising  its  contribution  in  the  world  to 14%.                          The  most  important  biomass  energy  sources  are  wood  and  wood  wastes,  agricultural  crops  and  its waste  byproducts,  municipal  solid  waste  (MSW),  animal  wastes,  waste  from  food  processing,  and aquatic  plants  and  algae.  The  majority  of  biomass  energy  is  produced  from  wood  and  wood  wastes (64%),  followed  by  MSW  (24%),  agricultural  waste  (5%),  and  landfill  gas  (5%).    In  the industrialized  countries,  the  main  biomass  processes  are  expected  to  be  direct  combustion  of residues  and  wastes  for  electricity  generation,  bio-ethanol  and  biodiesel  as  liquid  fuels,  and combined heat  and power (CHP) production from  energy crop. For  a  given  biofuel  feedstock  several  issues  require  careful  analysis  : 
(1)  chemical  composition  of the  biomass,  
(2)  cultivation  practices,
(3)  availability  of  land  and  land  use  practices, 
(4)  use  of resources, 
(5)  energy  balance, 
(6)  emission  of  greenhouse  gases,  acidifying  gases  and  ozone depletion  gases,  
(7)  absorption  of  minerals  to  water  and  soil,  
(8)  injection  of  pesticides,  
(9)  soil erosion,  
(10)  contribution  to  biodiversity  and  landscape  value  losses, 
(11)  farm-gate  price  of  the biomass,  
(12)  logistic  cost  (transport  and  storage  of  the  biomass),  
(13)  direct  economic  value  of the  feedstock  taking  into  account  the  co-products, 
(14)  creation  or  maintain  of  employment,  
(15) water requirements  and water availability.
A  biofuel  is  a  fuel  that  immediately  derived  from  living  matter.  It  is  produced  through  modern biological  processes,  such  as  agriculture  and  anaerobic  digestion.  Biofuels  can  be  derived  directly from  plants,  or  indirectly  from  agricultural,  commercial,  domestic,  and/or  industrial  wastes. Renewable  biofuels  generally  involve  contemporary  carbon  fixation,  such  as  those  that  occur  in plants  or  microalgae  through  the  process  of  photosynthesis.  Other  renewable  biofuels  are  made through  the  use  or  conversion  of  biomass.  This  biomass  can  be  converted  to  convenient  energy containing substances  in three  different  ways: 
a.  Thermal  conversion,  
b.  Chemical  conversion, 
c.  Biochemical  conversion.   This  biomass  conversion  can  result  in  fuel  in  solid,  liquid,  or  gas  form.  This  new  biomass  can  also be  used directly for biofuels. Bioethanol  is  an  alcohol  made  by  fermentation,  mostly  from  carbohydrates  produced  in  sugar  or starch  crops  such  as  corn,  sugarcane,  or  sweet  sorghum.  Cellulosic  biomass,  derived  from  nonfood  sources,  such  as  trees  and  grasses,  is  also  being  developed  as  a  feedstock  for  ethanol production.  Ethanol  can  be  used  as  a  fuel  for  vehicles  in  its  pure  form,  but  it  is  usually  used  as  a gasoline  additive  to  increase  octane  and  improve  vehicle  emissions.  Bioethanol  is  widely  used  in the  USA  and in Brazil.   Biodiesel  can  be  used  as  a  fuel  for  vehicles  in  its  pure  form,  but  it  is  usually  used  as  a  diesel additive  to  reduce  levels  of  particulates,  carbon  monoxide,  and  hydrocarbons  from  diesel-powered vehicles.  Biodiesel  is  produced  from  oils  or  fats  using  transesterification  and  is  the  most  common biofuel  in Europe. There  are  various  social,  economic,  environmental  and  technical  issues  relating  to  biofuels production  and  use,  which  have  been  published  in  the  popular  media  and  scientific  journals.  These include:  the  effect  of  moderating  oil  prices,  the  "food  vs  fuel"  debate,  poverty  reduction  potential, carbon  emissions  levels,  sustainable  biofuel  production,  deforestation  and  soil  erosion,  loss  of biodiversity,  impact  on  water  resources,  rural  social  exclusion  and  injustice,  shantytown  migration, rural  unskilled unemployment, and nitrogen dioxide  (NO2) emissions.
Shivani kumari, Amity University